July 19, 2019  |  

Chromosomal-level assembly of the Asian seabass genome using long sequence reads and multi-layered scaffolding.

We report here the ~670 Mb genome assembly of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), a tropical marine teleost. We used long-read sequencing augmented by transcriptomics, optical and genetic mapping along with shared synteny from closely related fish species to derive a chromosome-level assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome. The population structure of L. calcarifer species complex was analyzed by re-sequencing 61 individuals representing various regions across the species’ native range. SNP analyses identified high levels of genetic diversity and confirmed earlier indications of a population stratification comprising three clades with signs of admixture apparent in the South-East Asian population. The quality of the Asian seabass genome assembly far exceeds that of any other fish species, and will serve as a new standard for fish genomics.


July 19, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio campbellii strain 20130629003S01 isolated from shrimp with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease.

Vibrio campbellii is widely distributed in the marine environment and is an important pathogen of aquatic organisms such as shrimp, fish, and mollusks. An isolate of V. campbellii carrying the pirAB(vp) gene, causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), has been reported. There are no previous reports about the complete genome of V. campbellii causing AHPND (VCAHPND). To extend our understanding of the pathogenesis of VCAHPND at the genomic level, the genome of V. campbellii 20130629003S01 isolated from a shrimp with AHPND was sequenced and analysed.The complete genome sequence of V. campbellii 20130629003S01 was generated using the PacBio RSII platform with single molecule, real-time sequencing. The 20130629003S01 strain consists of two circular chromosomes (3,621,712 bp in chromosome 1 and 2,245,751 bp in chromosome 2) and four plasmids of 70,066, 204,531, 143,140, and 86,121 bp. The genome contains a total of 5855 protein coding genes, 134 tRNA genes and 37 rRNA genes. The average nucleotide identity value of 20130629003S01 and other reference V. campbellii strains was 97.46%, suggesting that they are closely related.The genome sequence of V. campbellii 20130629003S01 and its comparative analysis with other V. campbellii strains that we present here are important for a better understanding of the genomic characteristics of VCAHPND.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum ATCC 49418(T.).

Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease and rainbow trout fry mortality syndrome in salmonid fishes and is associated with significant losses in the aquaculture industry. The virulence factors and molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of F. psychrophilum are poorly understood. Moreover, at the present time, there are no effective vaccines and control using antimicrobial agents is problematic due to growing antimicrobial resistance and the fact that sick fish don’t eat. In the hopes of identifying vaccine and therapeutic targets, we sequenced the genome of the type strain ATCC 49418 which was isolated from the kidney of a Coho salmon (Oncorhychus kisutch) in Washington State (U.S.A.) in 1989. The genome is 2,715,909 bp with a G+C content of 32.75%. It contains 6 rRNA operons, 49 tRNA genes, and is predicted to encode 2,329 proteins.


July 7, 2019  |  

The genome sequence of the Antarctic bullhead notothen reveals evolutionary adaptations to a cold environment.

BackgroundAntarctic fish have adapted to the freezing waters of the Southern Ocean. Representative adaptations to this harsh environment include a constitutive heat shock response and the evolution of an antifreeze protein in the blood. Despite their adaptations to the cold, genome-wide studies have not yet been performed on these fish due to the lack of a sequenced genome. Notothenia coriiceps, the Antarctic bullhead notothen, is an endemic teleost fish with a circumpolar distribution and makes a good model to understand the genomic adaptations to constant sub-zero temperatures.ResultsWe provide the draft genome sequence and annotation for N. coriiceps. Comparative genome-wide analysis with other fish genomes shows that mitochondrial proteins and hemoglobin evolved rapidly. Transcriptome analysis of thermal stress responses find alternative response mechanisms for evolution strategies in a cold environment. Loss of the phosphorylation-dependent sumoylation motif in heat shock factor 1 suggests that the heat shock response evolved into a simple and rapid phosphorylation-independent regulatory mechanism. Rapidly evolved hemoglobin and the induction of a heat shock response in the blood may support the efficient supply of oxygen to cold-adapted mitochondria.ConclusionsOur data and analysis suggest that evolutionary strategies in efficient aerobic cellular respiration are controlled by hemoglobin and mitochondrial proteins, which may be important for the adaptation of Antarctic fish to their environment. The use of genome data from the Antarctic endemic fish provides an invaluable resource providing evidence of evolutionary adaptation and can be applied to other studies of Antarctic fish.


July 7, 2019  |  

Co-option of Sox3 as the male-determining factor on the Y chromosome in the fish Oryzias dancena.

Sex chromosomes harbour a primary sex-determining signal that triggers sexual development of the organism. However, diverse sex chromosome systems have been evolved in vertebrates. Here we use positional cloning to identify the sex-determining locus of a medaka-related fish, Oryzias dancena, and find that the locus on the Y chromosome contains a cis-regulatory element that upregulates neighbouring Sox3 expression in developing gonad. Sex-reversed phenotypes in Sox3(Y) transgenic fish, and Sox3(Y) loss-of-function mutants all point to its critical role in sex determination. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Sox3 initiates testicular differentiation by upregulating expression of downstream Gsdf, which is highly conserved in fish sex differentiation pathways. Our results not only provide strong evidence for the independent recruitment of Sox3 to male determination in distantly related vertebrates, but also provide direct evidence that a novel sex determination pathway has evolved through co-option of a transcriptional regulator potentially interacted with a conserved downstream component.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete mitogenome of Indian mottled eel, Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (Gray, 1831) through PacBio RSII sequencing.

Complete mitogenome sequence for Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (family Anguillidae) was generated through third-generation sequencing platform. The 16?714 bp mitgenome sequence contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a non-coding (control) region. The gene order was identical to that observed in most of the other vertebrates. The comparison of complete mitogenome sequence of Indian mottled eel generated during this study with two other subspecies did not agree with the taxonomic status of the three subspecies and considered as one species.


July 7, 2019  |  

Current status of genome sequencing and its applications in aquaculture

Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food production sector in agriculture, with great potential to meet projected protein needs of human beings. Aquaculture is facing several challenges, including lack of a sufficient number of genetically improved species, lack of species-specific feeds, high mortality due to diseases and pollution of ecosystems. The rapid development of sequencing technologies has revolutionized biological sciences, and supplied necessary tools to tackle these challenges in aquaculture and thus ensure its sustainability and profitability. So far, draft genomes have been published in over 24 aquaculture species, and used to address important issues related to aquaculture. We briefly review the advances of next generation sequencing technologies, and summarize the status of whole genome sequencing and its general applications (i.e. establishing reference genomes and discovering DNA markers) and specific applications in tackling some important issues (e.g. breeding, diseases, sex determination & maturation) related to aquaculture. For sequencing a new genome, we recommend the use of 100–200 × short reads using Illumina and 50–60 × long reads with PacBio sequencing technologies. For identification of a large number of SNPs, resequencing pooled DNA samples from different populations is the most cost-effective way. We also discuss the challenges and future directions of whole genome sequencing in aquaculture.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing strain Streptococcus thermophilus APC151.

Here is presented the whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus APC151, isolated from a marine fish. This bacterium produces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in high yields and is biotechnologically suitable to produce naturally GABA-enriched biofunctional yogurt. Its complete genome comprises 2,097 genes and 1,839,134 nucleotides, with an average G+C content of 39.1%. Copyright © 2017 Linares et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Higher-order organisation of extremely amplified, potentially functional and massively methylated 5S rDNA in European pikes (Esox sp.).

Pikes represent an important genus (Esox) harbouring a pre-duplication karyotype (2n?=?2x?=?50) of economically important salmonid pseudopolyploids. Here, we have characterized the 5S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in Esox lucius and its closely related E. cisalpinus using cytogenetic, molecular and genomic approaches. Intragenomic homogeneity and copy number estimation was carried out using Illumina reads. The higher-order structure of rDNA arrays was investigated by the analysis of long PacBio reads. Position of loci on chromosomes was determined by FISH. DNA methylation was analysed by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes.The 5S rDNA loci occupy exclusively (peri)centromeric regions on 30-38 acrocentric chromosomes in both E. lucius and E. cisalpinus. The large number of loci is accompanied by extreme amplification of genes (>20,000 copies), which is to the best of our knowledge one of the highest copy number of rRNA genes in animals ever reported. Conserved secondary structures of predicted 5S rRNAs indicate that most of the amplified genes are potentially functional. Only few SNPs were found in genic regions indicating their high homogeneity while intergenic spacers were more heterogeneous and several families were identified. Analysis of 10-30 kb-long molecules sequenced by the PacBio technology (containing about 40% of total 5S rDNA) revealed that the vast majority (96%) of genes are organised in large several kilobase-long blocks. Dispersed genes or short tandems were less common (4%). The adjacent 5S blocks were directly linked, separated by intervening DNA and even inverted. The 5S units differing in the intergenic spacers formed both homogeneous and heterogeneous (mixed) blocks indicating variable degree of homogenisation between the loci. Both E. lucius and E. cisalpinus 5S rDNA was heavily methylated at CG dinucleotides.Extreme amplification of 5S rRNA genes in the Esox genome occurred in the absence of significant pseudogenisation suggesting its recent origin and/or intensive homogenisation processes. The dense methylation of units indicates that powerful epigenetic mechanisms have evolved in this group of fish to silence amplified genes. We discuss how the higher-order repeat structures impact on homogenisation of 5S rDNA in the genome.


July 7, 2019  |  

The Atlantic salmon genome provides insights into rediploidization.

The whole-genome duplication 80 million years ago of the common ancestor of salmonids (salmonid-specific fourth vertebrate whole-genome duplication, Ss4R) provides unique opportunities to learn about the evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome in 70 extant lineages. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and show that large genomic reorganizations, coinciding with bursts of transposon-mediated repeat expansions, were crucial for the post-Ss4R rediploidization process. Comparisons of duplicate gene expression patterns across a wide range of tissues with orthologous genes from a pre-Ss4R outgroup unexpectedly demonstrate far more instances of neofunctionalization than subfunctionalization. Surprisingly, we find that genes that were retained as duplicates after the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication 320 million years ago were not more likely to be retained after the Ss4R, and that the duplicate retention was not influenced to a great extent by the nature of the predicted protein interactions of the gene products. Finally, we demonstrate that the Atlantic salmon assembly can serve as a reference sequence for the study of other salmonids for a range of purposes.


July 7, 2019  |  

Chimeras link to tandem repeats and transposable elements in tetraploid hybrid fish

Abstract The formation of the allotetraploid hybrid lineage (4nAT) encompasses both distant hybridization and polyploidization processes. The allotetraploid offspring have two sets of sub-genomes inherited from both parental species and therefore it is important to explore its genetic structure. Herein, we construct a bacterial artificial chromosome library of allotetraploids, and then sequence and analyze the full-length sequences of 19 bacterial artificial chromosomes. Sixty-eight DNA chimeras are identified, which are divided into four models according to the distribution of the genomic DNA derived from the parents. Among the 68 genetic chimeras, 44 (64.71%) are linked to tandem repeats (TRs) and 23 (33.82%) are linked to transposable elements (TEs). The chimeras linked to TRs are related to slipped-strand mispairing and double-strand break repair while the chimeras linked to TEs are benefit from the intervention of recombinases. In addition, TRs and TEs are linked not only with the recombinations, but also with the insertions/deletions of DNA segments. We conclude that DNA chimeras accompanied by TRs and TEs coordinate a balance between the sub-genomes derived from the parents which reduces the genomic shock effects and favors the evolutionary and adaptive capacity of the allotetraploidization. It is the first report on the relationship between formation of the DNA chimeras and TRs and TEs in the polyploid animals.


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