July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate.

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes. Copyright © 2014 Suzuki et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QU 25, an efficient L-(+)-lactic acid-producing bacterium.

Enterococcus mundtii QU 25, a non-dairy bacterial strain of ovine faecal origin, can ferment both cellobiose and xylose to produce l-lactic acid. The use of this strain is highly desirable for economical l-lactate production from renewable biomass substrates. Genome sequence determination is necessary for the genetic improvement of this strain. We report the complete genome sequence of strain QU 25, primarily determined using Pacific Biosciences sequencing technology. The E. mundtii QU 25 genome comprises a 3 022 186-bp single circular chromosome (GC content, 38.6%) and five circular plasmids: pQY182, pQY082, pQY039, pQY024, and pQY003. In all, 2900 protein-coding sequences, 63 tRNA genes, and 6 rRNA operons were predicted in the QU 25 chromosome. Plasmid pQY024 harbours genes for mundticin production. We found that strain QU 25 produces a bacteriocin, suggesting that mundticin-encoded genes on plasmid pQY024 were functional. For lactic acid fermentation, two gene clusters were identified-one involved in the initial metabolism of xylose and uptake of pentose and the second containing genes for the pentose phosphate pathway and uptake of related sugars. This is the first complete genome sequence of an E. mundtii strain. The data provide insights into lactate production in this bacterium and its evolution among enterococci. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.


July 7, 2019  |  

First complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus xylosus, a meat starter culture and a host to propagate Staphylococcus aureus phages.

Staphylococcus xylosus is a bacterial species used in meat fermentation and a commensal microorganism found on animals. We present the first complete circular genome from this species. The genome is composed of 2,757,557 bp, with a G+C content of 32.9%, and contains 2,514 genes and 79 structural RNAs. Copyright © 2014 Labrie et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Safety of the surrogate microorganism Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 for use in thermal process validation.

Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 is a surrogate microorganism used in place of pathogens for validation of thermal processing technologies and systems. We evaluated the safety of strain NRRL B-2354 based on its genomic and functional characteristics. The genome of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was sequenced and found to comprise a 2,635,572-bp chromosome and a 214,319-bp megaplasmid. A total of 2,639 coding sequences were identified, including 45 genes unique to this strain. Hierarchical clustering of the NRRL B-2354 genome with 126 other E. faecium genomes as well as pbp5 locus comparisons and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that the genotype of this strain is most similar to commensal, or community-associated, strains of this species. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 lacks antibiotic resistance genes, and both NRRL B-2354 and its clonal relative ATCC 8459 are sensitive to clinically relevant antibiotics. This organism also lacks, or contains nonfunctional copies of, enterococcal virulence genes including acm, cyl, the ebp operon, esp, gelE, hyl, IS16, and associated phenotypes. It does contain scm, sagA, efaA, and pilA, although either these genes were not expressed or their roles in enterococcal virulence are not well understood. Compared with the clinical strains TX0082 and 1,231,502, E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was more resistant to acidic conditions (pH 2.4) and high temperatures (60°C) and was able to grow in 8% ethanol. These findings support the continued use of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 in thermal process validation of food products.


July 7, 2019  |  

The genome of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A reveals the unique evolutionary history of a remarkable plant biomass degrader.

Anaerobic gut fungi represent a distinct early-branching fungal phylum (Neocallimastigomycota) and reside in the rumen, hindgut, and feces of ruminant and nonruminant herbivores. The genome of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A, was sequenced using a combination of Illumina and PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technologies. The large genome (100.95 Mb, 16,347 genes) displayed extremely low G+C content (17.0%), large noncoding intergenic regions (73.1%), proliferation of microsatellite repeats (4.9%), and multiple gene duplications. Comparative genomic analysis identified multiple genes and pathways that are absent in Dikarya genomes but present in early-branching fungal lineages and/or nonfungal Opisthokonta. These included genes for posttranslational fucosylation, the production of specific intramembrane proteases and extracellular protease inhibitors, the formation of a complete axoneme and intraflagellar trafficking machinery, and a near-complete focal adhesion machinery. Analysis of the lignocellulolytic machinery in the C1A genome revealed an extremely rich repertoire, with evidence of horizontal gene acquisition from multiple bacterial lineages. Experimental analysis indicated that strain C1A is a remarkable biomass degrader, capable of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions in multiple untreated grasses and crop residues examined, with the process significantly enhanced by mild pretreatments. This capability, acquired during its separate evolutionary trajectory in the rumen, along with its resilience and invasiveness compared to prokaryotic anaerobes, renders anaerobic fungi promising agents for consolidated bioprocessing schemes in biofuels production.


July 7, 2019  |  

Solid-state fermentative production of aroma esters by Myroides sp. ZB35 and its complete genome sequence.

Consumers prefer biotechnological food products with high nutritional values and good flavors. Solid-state fermentation is a commonly used technique with a long history. In the present study, Myroides sp. ZB35 was used in solid-state fermentative production of aroma volatiles on a rice medium. Using the headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique and authentic standards, 22 esters with molecular weight ranging from 102 to 172 were identified. At 192h, the esters reached a total concentration of 1774µg/kg. Subsequently, the complete genome of ZB35 was sequenced using the PacBio RS II platform. ZB35 has a single circular chromosome of 4,065,010bp with a GC content of 34.1% and six putative novel esterase genes were found. ZB35 is the first bacterium here discovered being capable of producing so many kinds of aroma esters. The data revealed here would provide helpful information for further developing this strain as a promising source of aroma esters relevant in food and fragrance industries and the source of novel enzymes with potential usages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequences of Cyberlindnera fabianii 65, Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 131 isolated from fermented masau fruits in Zimbabwe.

Cyberlindnera fabianii 65, Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 131 have been isolated from the microbiota of fermented masau fruits. C. fabianii and P. kudriavzevii especially harbor promising features for biotechnology and food applications. Here, we present the draft annotated genome sequences of these isolates. Copyright © 2017 van Rijswijck et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei LC5, a potential probiotics for atopic dermatitis.

Probiotics are living microorganisms providing health beneficial effect to the host (1). Probiotics have been used for the treatment or prevention of various diseases related to diarrhea (2), cho- lesterol (3) immune function (4), and inflammatory bowel disease (5). In addition, recent study also presents that probiotic bacteria in the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera are able to have therapeutic effects in the patients of psychological disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and memory (6).


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing strain Streptococcus thermophilus APC151.

Here is presented the whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus APC151, isolated from a marine fish. This bacterium produces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in high yields and is biotechnologically suitable to produce naturally GABA-enriched biofunctional yogurt. Its complete genome comprises 2,097 genes and 1,839,134 nucleotides, with an average G+C content of 39.1%. Copyright © 2017 Linares et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

High metabolic versatility of different toxigenic and non-toxigenic Clostridioides difficile isolates.

Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a major nosocomial pathogen with an increasing number of community-acquired infections causing symptoms from mild diarrhea to life-threatening colitis. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is considered to be mainly associated with the production of genome-encoded toxins A and B. In addition, some strains also encode and express the binary toxin CDT. However; a large number of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains have been isolated from the human gut and the environment. In this study, we characterized the growth behavior, motility and fermentation product formation of 17 different C. difficile isolates comprising five different major genomic clades and five different toxin inventories in relation to the C. difficile model strains 630?erm and R20291. Within 33 determined fermentation products, we identified two yet undescribed products (5-methylhexanoate and 4-(methylthio)-butanoate) of C. difficile. Our data revealed major differences in the fermentation products obtained after growth in a medium containing casamino acids and glucose as carbon and energy source. While the metabolism of branched chain amino acids remained comparable in all isolates, the aromatic amino acid uptake and metabolism and the central carbon metabolism-associated fermentation pathways varied strongly between the isolates. The patterns obtained followed neither the classification of the clades nor the ribotyping patterns nor the toxin distribution. As the toxin formation is strongly connected to the metabolism, our data allow an improved differentiation of C. difficile strains. The observed metabolic flexibility provides the optimal basis for the adaption in the course of infection and to changing conditions in different environments including the human gut. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate.

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for antigen production. In this study, we sequenced the genome of M. hyopneumoniae strain 11 and constructed a high quality constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model of 284 chemical reactions and 298 metabolites. We validated the model with time-series data of duplicate fermentation cultures to aim for an integrated model describing the dynamic profiles measured in fermentations. The model predicted that 84% of cellular energy in a standard M. hyopneumoniae cultivation was used for non-growth associated maintenance and only 16% of cellular energy was used for growth and growth associated maintenance. Following a cycle of model-driven experimentation in dedicated fermentation experiments, we were able to increase the fraction of cellular energy used for growth through pyruvate addition to the medium. This increase in turn led to an increase in growth rate and a 2.3 times increase in the total biomass concentration reached after 3-4 days of fermentation, enhancing the productivity of the overall process. The model presented provides a solid basis to understand and further improve M. hyopneumoniae fermentation processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2339-2347. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


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