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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The persimmon genome reveals clues to the evolution of a lineage-specific sex determination system in plants

Most angiosperms bear hermaphroditic flowers, but a few species have evolved outcrossing strategies, such as dioecy, the presence of separate male and female individuals. We previously investigated the mechanisms underlying dioecy in diploid persimmon (D. lotus) and found that male flowers are specified by repression of the autosomal gene MeGI by its paralog, the Y-encoded pseudo-gene OGI. This mechanism is thought to be lineage-specific, but its evolutionary path remains unknown. Here, we developed a full draft of the diploid persimmon genome (D. lotus), which revealed a lineage-specific genome-wide paleoduplication event. Together with a subsequent persimmon-specific duplication(s), these events resulted in…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

First near complete haplotype phased genome assembly of River buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

This study reports the first haplotype phased reference quality genome assembly of textquoteleftMurrahtextquoteright an Indian breed of river buffalo. A mother-father-progeny trio was used for sequencing so that the individual haplotypes could be assembled in the progeny. Parental DNA samples were sequenced on the Illumina platform to generate a total of 274 Gb paired-end data. The progeny DNA sample was sequenced using PacBio long reads and 10x Genomics linked reads at 166x coverage along with 802Gb of optical mapping data. Trio binning based FALCON assembly of each haplotype was scaffolded with 10x Genomics reads and superscaffolded with BioNano Maps to…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Long metabarcoding of the eukaryotic rDNA operon to phylogenetically and taxonomically resolve environmental diversity

High-throughput environmental DNA metabarcoding has revolutionized the analysis of microbial diversity, but this approach is generally restricted to amplicon sizes below 500 base pairs. These short regions contain limited phylogenetic signal, which makes it impractical to use environmental DNA in full phylogenetic inferences. However, new long-read sequencing technologies such as the Pacific Biosciences platform may provide sufficiently large sequence lengths to overcome the poor phylogenetic resolution of short amplicons. To test this idea, we amplified soil DNA and used PacBio Circular Consensus Sequencing (CCS) to obtain a ~4500 bp region of the eukaryotic rDNA operon spanning most of the small…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Trochodendron aralioides, the first chromosome-level draft genome in Trochodendrales and a valuable resource for basal eudicot research

Background The wheel tree (Trochodendron aralioides) is one of only two species in the basal eudicot order Trochodendrales. Together with Tetracentron sinense, the family is unique in having secondary xylem without vessel elements, long considered to be a primitive character also found in Amborella and Winteraceae. Recent studies however have shown that Trochodendraceae belong to basal eudicots and demonstrate this represents an evolutionary reversal for the group. Trochodendron aralioides is widespread in cultivation and popular for use in gardens and parks. Findings We assembled the T. aralioides genome using a total of 679.56 Gb of clean reads that were generated…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Reduced chromatin accessibility underlies gene expression differences in homologous chromosome arms of hexaploid wheat and diploid Aegilops tauschii

Polyploidy has been centrally important in driving the evolution of plants, and leads to alterations in gene expression that are thought to underlie the emergence of new traits. Despite the common occurrence of these global patterns of altered gene expression in polyploids, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Using a precise framework of highly conserved syntenic genes on hexaploid wheat chromosome 3DL and its progenitor 3L chromosome arm of diploid Aegilops tauschii, we show that 70% of these genes exhibited proportionally reduced gene expression, in which expression in the hexaploid context of the 3DL genes was approximately 40% of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Convergent evolution of linked mating-type loci in basidiomycetes: an ancient fusion event that has stood the test of time

Sexual development is a key evolutionary innovation of eukaryotes. In many species, mating involves interaction between compatible mating partners that can undergo cell and nuclear fusion and subsequent steps of development including meiosis. Mating compatibility in fungi is governed by mating type determinants, which are localized at mating type (MAT) loci. In basidiomycetes, the ancestral state is hypothesized to be tetrapolar (bifactorial), with two genetically unlinked MAT loci containing homeodomain transcription factor genes (HD locus) and pheromone and pheromone receptor genes (P/R locus), respectively. Alleles at both loci must differ between mating partners for completion of sexual development. However, there…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Hi-C guided assemblies reveal conserved regulatory topologies on X and autosomes despite extensive genome shuffling

Genome rearrangements that occur during evolution impose major challenges on regulatory mechanisms that rely on three-dimensional genome architecture. Here, we developed a scaffolding algorithm and generated chromosome-length assemblies from Hi-C data for studying genome topology in three distantly related Drosophila species. We observe extensive genome shuffling between these species with one synteny breakpoint after approximately every six genes. A/B compartments, a set of large gene-dense topologically associating domains (TADs) and spatial contacts between high-affinity sites (HAS) located on the X chromosome are maintained over 40 million years, indicating architectural conservation at various hierarchies. Evolutionary conserved genes cluster in the vicinity…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Disruption of the kringle 1 domain of prothrombin leads to late onset mortality in zebrafish

The ability to prevent blood loss in response to injury is a critical, evolutionarily conserved function of all vertebrates. Prothrombin (F2) contributes to both primary and secondary hemostasis through the activation of platelets and the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin, respectively. Complete prothrombin deficiency has never been observed in humans and is incompatible with life in mice, limiting the ability to understand the entirety of prothrombin’s in vivo functions. We have previously demonstrated the ability of zebrafish to tolerate loss of both pro- and anticoagulant factors that are embryonic lethal in mammals, making them an ideal model for…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Benchmarking Transposable Element Annotation Methods for Creation of a Streamlined, Comprehensive Pipeline

Sequencing technology and assembly algorithms have matured to the point that high-quality de novo assembly is possible for large, repetitive genomes. Current assemblies traverse transposable elements (TEs) and allow for annotation of TEs. There are numerous methods for each class of elements with unknown relative performance metrics. We benchmarked existing programs based on a curated library of rice TEs. Using the most robust programs, we created a comprehensive pipeline called Extensive de-novo TE Annotator (EDTA) that produces a condensed TE library for annotations of structurally intact and fragmented elements. EDTA is open-source and freely available: https://github.com/oushujun/EDTA.List of abbreviationsTETransposable ElementsLTRLong Terminal…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome analysis and Hi-C assisted assembly of Elaeagnus angustifolia L., a deciduous tree belonging to Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnus angustifolia L. is a deciduous tree of the Elaeagnaceae family. It is widely used in the study of abiotic stress tolerance in plants and for the improvement of desertification-affected land due to its characteristics of drought resistance, salt tolerance, cold resistance, wind resistance, and other environmental adaptation. Here, we report the complete genome sequencing using the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) platform and Hi-C assisted assembly of E. angustifolia. A total of 44.27 Gb raw PacBio sequel reads were obtained after filtering out low-quality data, with an average length of 8.64 Kb. Assembly using Canu gave an assembly length of 781.09…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Insect genomes: progress and challenges.

In the wake of constant improvements in sequencing technologies, numerous insect genomes have been sequenced. Currently, 1219 insect genome-sequencing projects have been registered with the National Center for Biotechnology Information, including 401 that have genome assemblies and 155 with an official gene set of annotated protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis showed that the expansion or contraction of gene families was associated with well-studied physiological traits such as immune system, metabolic detoxification, parasitism and polyphagy in insects. Here, we summarize the progress of insect genome sequencing, with an emphasis on how this impacts research on pest control. We begin with a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Extended haplotype phasing of de novo genome assemblies with FALCON-Phase

Haplotype-resolved genome assemblies are important for understanding how combinations of variants impact phenotypes. These assemblies can be created in various ways, such as use of tissues that contain single-haplotype (haploid) genomes, or by co-sequencing of parental genomes, but these approaches can be impractical in many situations. We present FALCON-Phase, which integrates long-read sequencing data and ultra-long-range Hi-C chromatin interaction data of a diploid individual to create high-quality, phased diploid genome assemblies. The method was evaluated by application to three datasets, including human, cattle, and zebra finch, for which high-quality, fully haplotype resolved assemblies were available for benchmarking. Phasing algorithm accuracy…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Divergent selection following speciation in two ectoparasitic honey bee mites

Multispecies host-parasite evolution is common, but how parasites evolve after speciating remains poorly understood. Shared evolutionary history and physiology may propel species along similar evolutionary trajectories whereas pursuing different strategies can reduce competition. We test these scenarios in the economically important association between honey bees and ectoparasitic mites by sequencing the genomes of the sister mite species Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni. These genomes were closely related, with 99.7% sequence identity. Among the 9,628 orthologous genes, 4.8% showed signs of positive selection in at least one species. Divergent selective trajectories were discovered in conserved chemosensory gene families (IGR, SNMP), and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Virus-host coexistence in phytoplankton through the genomic lens

Phytoplankton-virus interactions are major determinants of geochemical cycles in the oceans. Viruses are responsible for the redirection of carbon and nutrients away from larger organisms back towards microorganisms via the lysis of microalgae in a process coined the “viral shunt”. Virus-host interactions are generally expected to follow “boom and bust” dynamics, whereby a numerically dominant strain is lysed and replaced by a virus resistant strain. Here, we isolated a microalga and its infective nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) concomitantly from the environment in the surface NW Mediterranean Sea, Ostreococcus mediterraneus, and show continuous growth in culture of both the microalga…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Centromere-mediated chromosome break drives karyotype evolution in closely related Malassezia species

Intra-chromosomal or inter-chromosomal genomic rearrangements often lead to speciation. Loss or gain of a centromere leads to alterations in chromosome number in closely related species. Thus, centromeres can enable tracing the path of evolution from the ancestral to a derived state. The Malassezia species complex of the phylum Basiodiomycota shows remarkable diversity in chromosome number ranging between six and nine chromosomes. To understand these transitions, we experimentally identified all eight centromeres as binding sites of an evolutionarily conserved outer kinetochore protein Mis12/Mtw1 in M. sympodialis. The 3 to 5 kb centromere regions share an AT-rich, poorly transcribed core region enriched…

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