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Sunday, July 7, 2019

What caused the outbreak of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit, Germany 2009 to 2012? Reconstructing transmission with epidemiological analysis and whole-genome sequencing.

We aimed to retrospectively reconstruct the timing of transmission events and pathways in order to understand why extensive preventive measures and investigations were not sufficient to prevent new cases.We extracted available information from patient charts to describe cases and to compare them to the normal population of the ward. We conducted a cohort study to identify risk factors for pathogen acquisition. We sequenced the available isolates to determine the phylogenetic relatedness of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates on the basis of their genome sequences.The investigation comprises 37 cases and the 10 cases with ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase)-producing K. pneumoniae bloodstream infection. Descriptive epidemiology…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes.

The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomics and characterization of hybrid Shigatoxigenic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC/ETEC) strains.

Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) cause serious foodborne infections in humans. These two pathogroups are defined based on the pathogroup-associated virulence genes: stx encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) for STEC and elt encoding heat-labile and/or est encoding heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) for ETEC. The study investigated the genomics of STEC/ETEC hybrid strains to determine their phylogenetic position among E. coli and to define the virulence genes they harbor.The whole genomes of three STEC/ETEC strains possessing both stx and est genes were sequenced using PacBio RS sequencer. Two of the strains were isolated from the patients, one with hemolytic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in a university hospital in Nepal reveals the emergence of a novel epidemic clonal lineage.

The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has become a serious medical problem worldwide. To clarify the genetic and epidemiological properties of MDR A. baumannii strains isolated from a medical setting in Nepal, 246 Acinetobacter spp. isolates obtained from different patients were screened for MDR A. baumannii by antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing. Whole genomes of the MDR A. baumannii isolates were sequenced by MiSeq™ (Illumina), and the complete genome of one isolate (IOMTU433) was sequenced by PacBio RS II. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from single nucleotide polymorphism concatemers. Multilocus sequence types were deduced and drug resistance genes were identified. Of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic epidemiology of an endoscope-associated outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae.

Increased incidence of infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) was noted among patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) at a single hospital. An epidemiologic investigation identified KPC-Kp and non-KPC-producing, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Kp in cultures from 2 endoscopes. Genotyping was performed on patient and endoscope isolates to characterize the microbial genomics of the outbreak. Genetic similarity of 51 Kp isolates from 37 patients and 3 endoscopes was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Five patient and 2 endoscope isolates underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS). Two KPC-encoding plasmids were characterized by single…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Molecular characterization using next generation sequencing of plasmids containing blaNDM-7 in Enterobacteriaceae from Calgary, Canada.

Enterobacteriaceae with blaNDM-7 is relatively uncommon and had previously been described in Europe, India, USA and Japan. This study describes the characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae [Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2), Escherichia coli (n=2), Serratia marcescens (n=1), Enterobacter hormaechei (n=1)] with blaNDM-7 obtained in 4 patients from Calgary, Canada during 2013-4. The 46,161 bp IncX3 plasmids with blaNDM-7 are highly similar to other blaNDM-harboring IncX3 plasmids and interestingly, showed identical structures within the different isolates. This finding may indicate horizontal transmission within our health region or may indicate contact with individuals from endemic areas within the hospital setting. Patients infected or colonized with bacteria…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Next-generation sequencing and comparative analysis of sequential outbreaks caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii at a large academic burn center.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis has emerged as a promising molecular epidemiological method for investigating health care-associated outbreaks. Here, we used NGS to investigate a 3-year outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) at a large academic burn center. A reference genome from the index case was generated using de novo assembly of PacBio reads. Forty-six MDRAB isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequenced using an Illumina platform. After mapping to the index case reference genome, four samples were excluded due to low coverage, leaving 42 samples for further analysis. Multilocus sequence types (MLST) and the presence of acquired…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequences of 228 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates and 12 isolates representing other diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a common cause for food-borne diarrheal illness outbreaks and sporadic cases. Here, we report the availability of the draft genome sequences of 228 STEC strains representing 32 serotypes with known pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types and epidemiological relationships, as well as 12 strains representing other diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Copyright © 2014 Trees et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain ATCC 13311 (NCTC 74), a reference strain of multidrug resistance, as achieved by use of PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time technology.

We report the first complete genomic sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain ATCC 13311, the leading food-borne pathogen and a reference strain used in drug resistance studies. De novo assembly with PacBio sequencing completed its chromosome and one plasmid. They will accelerate the investigation into multidrug resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium. Copyright © 2014 Terabayashi et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Integrative analysis of Salmonellosis in Israel reveals association of Salmonella enterica serovar 9,12:l,v:- with extraintestinal infections, dissemination of endemic S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 biotypes, and severe underreporting of outbreaks.

Salmonella enterica is the leading etiologic agent of bacterial food-borne outbreaks worldwide. This ubiquitous species contains more than 2,600 serovars that may differ in their host specificity, clinical manifestations, and epidemiology. To characterize salmonellosis epidemiology in Israel and to study the association of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars with invasive infections, 48,345 Salmonella cases reported and serotyped at the National Salmonella Reference Center between 1995 and 2012 were analyzed. A quasi-Poisson regression was used to identify irregular clusters of illness, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in conjunction with whole-genome sequencing was applied to molecularly characterize strains of interest. Three hundred twenty-nine human…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome analysis of Exserohilum rostratum from an outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections.

Exserohilum rostratum was the cause of most cases of fungal meningitis and other infections associated with the injection of contaminated methylprednisolone acetate produced by the New England Compounding Center (NECC). Until this outbreak, very few human cases of Exserohilum infection had been reported, and very little was known about this dematiaceous fungus, which usually infects plants. Here, we report using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phylogenetic analysis to investigate the molecular origin of the outbreak using 22 isolates of E. rostratum retrieved from 19 case patients with meningitis or epidural/spinal abscesses, 6 isolates…

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