July 19, 2019  |  

Single-molecule sequencing to track plasmid diversity of hospital-associated carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

Public health officials have raised concerns that plasmid transfer between Enterobacteriaceae species may spread resistance to carbapenems, an antibiotic class of last resort, thereby rendering common health care-associated infections nearly impossible to treat. To determine the diversity of carbapenemase-encoding plasmids and assess their mobility among bacterial species, we performed comprehensive surveillance and genomic sequencing of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center patient population and hospital environment. We isolated a repertoire of carbapenemase-encoding Enterobacteriaceae, including multiple strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Pantoea species. Long-read genome sequencing with full end-to-end assembly revealed that these organisms carry the carbapenem resistance genes on a wide array of plasmids. K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae isolated simultaneously from a single patient harbored two different carbapenemase-encoding plasmids, indicating that plasmid transfer between organisms was unlikely within this patient. We did, however, find evidence of horizontal transfer of carbapenemase-encoding plasmids between K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, and C. freundii in the hospital environment. Our data, including full plasmid identification, challenge assumptions about horizontal gene transfer events within patients and identify possible connections between patients and the hospital environment. In addition, we identified a new carbapenemase-encoding plasmid of potentially high clinical impact carried by K. pneumoniae, E. coli, E. cloacae, and Pantoea species, in unrelated patients and in the hospital environment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae GGT036: a furfural tolerant soil bacterium.

Enterobacter cloacae is a facultative anaerobic bacterium to be an important cause of nosocomial infection. However, the isolated E. cloacae GGT036 showed higher furfural-tolerant cellular growth, compared to industrial relevant strains such as Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 isolated from Mt. Gwanak, Seoul, Republic of Korea. The genomic DNA sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 will provide valuable genetic resources for engineering of industrially relevant strains being tolerant to cellular inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

Clonal dissemination of Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 in the upper midwestern United States.

Carbapenemase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CP-CRE, are an emerging threat to human and animal health, because they are resistant to many of the last-line antimicrobials available for disease treatment. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 recently was reported in the upper midwestern United States and implicated in a hospital outbreak in Fargo, North Dakota (L. M. Kiedrowski, D. M. Guerrero, F. Perez, R. A. Viau, L. J. Rojas, M. F. Mojica, S. D. Rudin, A. M. Hujer, S. H. Marshall, and R. A. Bonomo, Emerg Infect Dis 20:1583-1585, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140344). In early 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health began collecting and screening CP-CRE from patients throughout Minnesota. Here, we analyzed a retrospective group of CP-E. cloacae isolates (n = 34) collected between 2009 and 2013. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis revealed that 32 of the strains were clonal, belonging to the ST171 clonal complex and differing collectively by 211 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and it revealed a dynamic clone under positive selection. The phylogeography of these strains suggests that this clone existed in eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota prior to 2009 and subsequently was identified in the Minneapolis and St. Paul metropolitan area. All strains harbored identical IncFIA-like plasmids conferring a CP-CRE phenotype and an additional IncX3 plasmid. In a single patient with multiple isolates submitted over several months, we found evidence that these plasmids had transferred from the E. cloacae clone to an Escherichia coli ST131 bacterium, rendering it as a CP-CRE. The spread of this clone throughout the upper midwestern United States is unprecedented for E. cloacae and highlights the importance of continued surveillance to identify such threats to human health. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

High-quality genome sequence of human pathogen Enterobacter asburiae type strain 1497-78(T).

Enterobacter asburiae belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex (Ecc), which comprises six heterogenic species. These bacteria can cause nosocomial infections. Moreover, they are well known for antibiotic resistance features based on overproduction of AmpC ß-lactamases. Although Ecc have clinical importance, little is known about their virulence-associated properties, and very few strains from the six species have been sequenced. In this study, the type strain of E. asburiae 1497-78(T) (ATCC 35953) was sequenced. The genome sequence of the type strain of E. asburiae will help us to understand antibiotic resistance and evolution in Ecc. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae 704SK10, an OXA-48-encoding wastewater isolate.

Here we present the complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae 704SK10, a Swiss wastewater isolate encoding an OXA-48 carbapenemase. Assembly resulted in closed sequences of the 4,876,946-bp chromosome, a 111,184-bp IncF plasmid, and an OXA-48-encoding IncL plasmid (63,458 bp) nearly identical to the previously described plasmid pOXA-48. Copyright © 2017 Marti et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Coproduction of KPC-18 and VIM-1 carbapenemases by Enterobacter cloacae: Implications for newer ß-lactam-ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

Enterobacter cloacae strain G6809 with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems was identified from a patient in a long-term acute care hospital in Kentucky. G6809 belonged to sequence type (ST) 88 and carried two carbapenemase genes, blaKPC-18 and blaVIM-1. Whole-genome sequencing localized blaKPC-18 to the chromosome and blaVIM-1 to a 58-kb plasmid. The strain was highly resistant to ceftazidime-avibactam. Insidious coproduction of metallo-ß-lactamase with KPC-type carbapenemase has implications for the use of next-generation ß-lactam-ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

Antibiotic failure mediated by a resistant subpopulation in Enterobacter cloacae.

Antibiotic resistance is a major public health threat, further complicated by unexplained treatment failures caused by bacteria that appear antibiotic susceptible. We describe an Enterobacter cloacae isolate harbouring a minor subpopulation that is highly resistant to the last-line antibiotic colistin. This subpopulation was distinct from persisters, became predominant in colistin, returned to baseline after colistin removal and was dependent on the histidine kinase PhoQ. During murine infection, but in the absence of colistin, innate immune defences led to an increased frequency of the resistant subpopulation, leading to inefficacy of subsequent colistin therapy. An isolate with a lower-frequency colistin-resistant subpopulation similarly caused treatment failure but was misclassified as susceptible by current diagnostics once cultured outside the host. These data demonstrate the ability of low-frequency bacterial subpopulations to contribute to clinically relevant antibiotic resistance, elucidating an enigmatic cause of antibiotic treatment failure and highlighting the critical need for more sensitive diagnostics.

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