September 22, 2019  |  

Transcriptional adaptations during long-term persistence of Staphylococcus aureus in the airways of a cystic fibrosis patient.

The lungs of Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are often colonized and/or infected by Staphylococcus aureus for years, mostly by one predominant clone. For long-term survival in this environment, S. aureus needs to adapt during its interactions with host factors, antibiotics, and other pathogens. Here, we study long-term transcriptional as well as genomic adaptations of an isogenic pair of S. aureus isolates from a single patient using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Mimicking in vivo conditions, we cultivated the S. aureus isolates using artificial sputum medium before harvesting RNA for subsequent analysis. We confirmed our RNA-Seq data using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR and additionally investigated intermediate isolates from the same patient representing in total 13.2 years of persistence in the CF airways. Comparative RNA-Seq analysis of the first and the last (“late”) isolate revealed significant differences in the late isolate after 13.2 years of persistence. Of the 2545 genes expressed in both isolates that were cultivated aerobically, 256 genes were up- and 161 were down-regulated with a minimum 2-fold change (2f). Focusing on 25 highly (=8f) up- (n=9) or down- (n=16) regulated genes, we identified several genes encoding for virulence factors involved in immune evasion, bacterial spread or secretion (e.g. spa, sak, and esxA). Moreover, these genes displayed similar expression trends under aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions. Further qRT-PCR-experiments of highly up- or down-regulated genes within intermediate S. aureus isolates resulted in different gene expression patterns over the years. Using sequencing analysis of the differently expressed genes and their upstream regions in the late S. aureus isolate resulted in only few genomic alterations. Comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed adaptive changes affecting mainly genes involved in host-pathogen interaction. Although the underlying mechanisms were not known, our results suggest adaptive processes beyond genomic mutations triggered by local factors rather than by activation of global regulators. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.


September 22, 2019  |  

Different next generation sequencing platforms produce different microbial profiles and diversity in cystic fibrosis sputum.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent lung infections. Studies of the lung microbiome have shown an association between decreasing diversity and progressive disease. 454 pyrosequencing has frequently been used to study the lung microbiome in CF, but will no longer be supported. We sought to identify the benefits and drawbacks of using two state-of-the-art next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, MiSeq and PacBio RSII, to characterize the CF lung microbiome. Each has its advantages and limitations.Twelve samples of extracted bacterial DNA were sequenced on both MiSeq and PacBio NGS platforms. DNA was amplified for the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and libraries were sequenced on the MiSeq sequencing platform, while the full 16S rRNA gene was sequenced on the PacBio RSII sequencing platform. Raw FASTQ files generated by the MiSeq and PacBio platforms were processed in mothur v1.35.1.There was extreme discordance in alpha-diversity of the CF lung microbiome when using the two platforms. Because of its depth of coverage, sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 gene region using MiSeq allowed for the observation of many more operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and higher Chao1 and Shannon indices than the PacBio RSII. Interestingly, several patients in our cohort had Escherichia, an unusual pathogen in CF. Also, likely because of its coverage of the complete 16S rRNA gene, only PacBio RSII was able to identify Burkholderia, an important CF pathogen.When comparing microbiome diversity in clinical samples from CF patients using 16S sequences, MiSeq and PacBio NGS platforms may generate different results in microbial community composition and structure. It may be necessary to use different platforms when trying to correctly identify dominant pathogens versus measuring alpha-diversity estimates, and it would be important to use the same platform for comparisons to minimize errors in interpretation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 19, 2019  |  

Genome reference and sequence variation in the large repetitive central exon of human MUC5AC.

Despite modern sequencing efforts, the difficulty in assembly of highly repetitive sequences has prevented resolution of human genome gaps, including some in the coding regions of genes with important biological functions. One such gene, MUC5AC, encodes a large, secreted mucin, which is one of the two major secreted mucins in human airways. The MUC5AC region contains a gap in the human genome reference (hg19) across the large, highly repetitive, and complex central exon. This exon is predicted to contain imperfect tandem repeat sequences and multiple conserved cysteine-rich (CysD) domains. To resolve the MUC5AC genomic gap, we used high-fidelity long PCR followed by single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. This technology yielded long sequence reads and robust coverage that allowed for de novo sequence assembly spanning the entire repetitive region. Furthermore, we used SMRT sequencing of PCR amplicons covering the central exon to identify genetic variation in four individuals. The results demonstrated the presence of segmental duplications of CysD domains, insertions/deletions (indels) of tandem repeats, and single nucleotide variants. Additional studies demonstrated that one of the identified tandem repeat insertions is tagged by nonexonic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Taken together, these data illustrate the successful utility of SMRT sequencing long reads for de novo assembly of large repetitive sequences to fill the gaps in the human genome. Characterization of the MUC5AC gene and the sequence variation in the central exon will facilitate genetic and functional studies for this critical airway mucin.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid strain FRD1, isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient.

We announce here the complete genome sequence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid strain FRD1, isolated from the sputum of a cystic fibrosis patient. The complete genome of P. aeruginosa FRD1 is 6,712,339 bp. This genome will allow comparative genomics to be used to identify genes associated with virulence, especially those involved in chronic pulmonary infections. Copyright © 2015 Silo-Suh et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Burkholderia cepacia strain LO6.

Burkholderia cepacia strain LO6 is a betaproteobacterium that was isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient. Here we report the 6.4 Mb draft genome sequence assembled into 2 contigs. This genome sequence will aid the transcriptomic profiling of this bacterium and help us to better understand the mechanisms specific to pulmonary infections. Copyright © 2015 Belcaid et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequences of Burkholderia contaminans, a Burkholderia cepacia complex species that is increasingly recovered from cystic fibrosis patients.

Burkholderia contaminans belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), a group of bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and capable of infecting the immunocompromised and people with cystic fibrosis. We report here draft genome sequences for the B. contaminans type strain LMG 23361 and an Argentinian cystic fibrosis sputum isolate. Copyright © 2015 Bloodworth et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of highly adherent Pseudomonas aeruginosa small-colony variant SCV20265.

The evolution of small-colony variants within Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations chronically infecting the cystic fibrosis lung is one example of the emergence of adapted subpopulations. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the autoaggregative and hyperpiliated P. aeruginosa small-colony variant SCV20265, which was isolated from a cystic ?brosis (CF) patient.


July 7, 2019  |  

Whole-genome assemblies of 56 Burkholderia species.

Burkholderia is a genus of betaproteobacteria that includes three notable human pathogens: B. cepacia, B. pseudomallei, and B. mallei. While B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are considered potential biowarfare agents, B. cepacia infections are largely limited to cystic fibrosis patients. Here, we present 56 Burkholderia genomes from 8 distinct species. Copyright © 2014 Daligault et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence analysis of Pandoraea pnomenusa type strain DSM 16536(T) isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient.

The genus of Pandoraea was first proposed in 2000 following the isolation from the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients (Coenye et al., 2000). Five species were initially assigned to the novel genus namely Pandoraea apista, Pandoraea pulmonicola, Pandoraea pnomenusa, Pandoraea sputorum, and Pandoraea norimbergensis but the description of four new species and another four genomospecies in the subsequent years led to a total of nine species and four genomospecies within the genus of Pandoraea (Daneshvar et al., 2001; Anandham et al., 2010; Sahin et al., 2011). The isolation of Pandoraea spp. from various environmental samples such as water, sludge, and soils have been reported, but to date, only P. pnomenusa, P. apista, P. pulmonicola, and P. sputorum were isolated from clinical specimens such as blood, sputum and bronchial fluid of patients with cystic fibrosis or chronic lung diseases (Coenye et al., 2000; Daneshvar et al., 2001; Stryjewski et al., 2003; Han-Jen et al., 2013). Members of Pandoraea tend to exhibit broad resistance to ampicillin, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, aminoglycosides, and meropenem but they are sensitive to imipenem (Daneshvar et al., 2001; Stryjewski et al., 2003). However, the clinical significance and prevalence of these multi-drug resistant bacteria among patients with cystic fibrosis or respiratory diseases remained unknown since Pandoraea spp. are usually misidentified as Burkholderia cepacia complex, Ralstonia pickettii, or Ralstonia paucula (Segonds et al., 2003). Ambiguity in differentiating between B. cepacia complex, Ralstonia spp. and Pandoraea spp. can be resolved by 16S ribosomal DNA-PCR (Coenye et al., 2001) and gyrB gene restriction fragment length polymorphism (Coenye and LiPuma, 2002) but the limited use of molecular typing methods in routine clinical microbiological laboratory has resulted in the underreporting of Pandoraea spp. in clinical cases.


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