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Thursday, August 27, 2020

Case Study: SMRT sequencing brings clarity to HIV vaccine and transplant research at the Wisconsin national primate research center

The Wisconsin National Primate Research Center (WNPRC) is a leading Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) typing lab that focuses on monkeys. While many scientists are familiar with the importance of characterizing the histocompatibility region of the human genome for applications like disease research or tissue typing before organ transplantation, fewer are aware of the need to accurately type this region in non-human primates. At the primate research lab, part of the University of Wisconsin- Madison, scientists are analyzing immune regions to help test potential HIV vaccines and AIDS therapies. Their work is essential for understanding the effects of treatment ahead of…

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Thursday, August 27, 2020

Whitepaper: Structural variation in the human genome

Structural variation accounts for much of the variation among human genomes. Structural variants of all types are known to cause Mendelian disease and contribute to complex disease. Learn how long-read sequencing is enabling detection of the full spectrum of structural variants to advance the study of human disease, evolution and genetic diversity.

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Thursday, August 27, 2020

Application Brief: Variant detection using whole genome sequencing with HiFi reads – Best Practices

With highly accurate long reads (HiFi reads) from the Sequel II System, powered by Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing technology, you can comprehensively detect variants in a human genome. HiFi reads provide high precision and recall for single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels, structural variants (SVs), and copy number variants (CNVs), including in difficult-to-map repetitive regions.

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Thursday, August 27, 2020

Application Brief: Structural variant detection using whole genome sequencing – Best Practices

With the Sequel II System powered by Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing technology and SMRT Link v8.0, you can affordably and effectively detect structural variants (SVs), copy number variants, and large indels ranging in size from tens to thousands of base pairs. PacBio long-read whole genome sequencing comprehensively resolves variants in an individual with high precision and recall. For population genetics and pedigree studies, joint calling powers rapid discovery of common variants within a sample cohort.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Adaptive archaic introgression of copy number variants and the discovery of previously unknown human genes

As they migrated out of Africa and into Europe and Asia, anatomically modern humans interbred with archaic hominins, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. The result of this genetic introgression on the recipient populations has been of considerable interest, especially in cases of selection for specific archaic genetic variants. Hsieh et al. characterized adaptive structural variants and copy number variants that are likely targets of positive selection in Melanesians. Focusing on population-specific regions of the genome that carry duplicated genes and show an excess of amino acid replacements provides evidence for one of the mechanisms by which genetic novelty can arise…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Copy-number variants in clinical genome sequencing: deployment and interpretation for rare and undiagnosed disease.

Current diagnostic testing for genetic disorders involves serial use of specialized assays spanning multiple technologies. In principle, genome sequencing (GS) can detect all genomic pathogenic variant types on a single platform. Here we evaluate copy-number variant (CNV) calling as part of a clinically accredited GS test.We performed analytical validation of CNV calling on 17 reference samples, compared the sensitivity of GS-based variants with those from a clinical microarray, and set a bound on precision using orthogonal technologies. We developed a protocol for family-based analysis of GS-based CNV calls, and deployed this across a clinical cohort of 79 rare and undiagnosed…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

ASHG PacBio Workshop: Amplicon SMRT Sequencing applications in human genetics

In this ASHG workshop presentation, Stuart Scott of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, presented on using the PacBio system for amplicon sequencing in pharmacogenomics and clinical genomics workflows. Accurate, phased amplicon sequence for the CYP2D6 gene, for example, has allowed his team to reclassify up to 20% of samples, providing data that’s critical for drug metabolism and dosing. In clinical genomics, Scott presented several case studies illustrating the utility of highly accurate, long-read sequencing for assessing copy number variants and for confirming a suspected medical diagnosis in rare disease patients. He noted that the latest Sequel System…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

ASHG PacBio Workshop: Characterization of a large, human-specific tandem repeat array associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

In this ASHG workshop presentation, Janet Song of Stanford School of Medicine shared research on resolving a tandem repeat array implicated in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. These psychiatric diseases share a number of genomic risk variants, she noted, but scientists continue to search for a specific causal variant in the CACNA1C gene suggested by previous genome-wide association studies. SMRT Sequencing of this region in 16 individuals identified a series of 30-mer repeats, containing a total of about 50 variants. Analysis showed that 10 variants were linked to protective or risk haplotypes. Song aims to study the function of these variants…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

ASHG PacBio Workshop: SMRT Sequencing as a translational research tool to investigate germline, somatic and infectious diseases

Melissa Laird Smith discussed how the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai uses long-read sequencing for translational research. She gave several examples of targeted sequencing projects run on the Sequel System including CYP2D6, phased mutations of GLA in Fabry’s disease, structural variation breakpoint validation in glioblastoma, and full-length immune profiling of TCR sequences.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

ASHG PacBio Workshop: Long-read sequencing for detecting clinically relevant structural variation

In this ASHG 2017 presentation, Han Brunner of Radboud University Medical Center presented research using SMRT Sequencing to detect structural variants to uncover the genetic causes of intellectual disability. He shared that long-read sequencing enabled detection of 25,000 structural variants per genome. Brunner presented data from patient trios to identify de novo structural variant candidates and ongoing validation work to determine the causative mutations of intellectual disability.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

Webinar: Detecting structural variants in PacBio reads – tools and applications

Most of the basepairs that differ between two human genomes are in intermediate-sized structural variants (50 bp to 5 kb), which are too small to detect with array CGH but too large to reliably discover with short-read NGS. PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing fills this technology gap. SMRT Sequencing detects tens of thousands of structural variants in a human genome, approximately five times the sensitivity of short-read NGS. To discover variants using SMRT Sequencing, we have developed pbsv, which is available in version 5 of the PacBio SMRT Link software suite. The pbsv algorithm applies a sequence of stages:…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Comprehensive structural and copy-number variant detection with long reads

To comprehensively detect large variants in human genomes, we have extended pbsv – a structural variant caller for long reads – to call copy-number variants (CNVs) from read-clipping and read-depth signatures. In human germline benchmark samples, we detect more than 300 CNVs spanning around 10 Mb, and we call hundreds of additional events in re-arranged cancer samples. Long-read sequencing of diverse humans has revealed more than 20,000 insertion, deletion, and inversion structural variants spanning more than 12 Mb in a typical human genome. Most of these variants are too large to detect with short reads and too small for array…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

PacBio sequencing of gene families – a case study with wheat gluten genes.

Amino acids in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds mainly accumulate in storage proteins called gliadins and glutenins. Gliadins contain a/ß-, ?- and ?-types whereas glutenins contain HMW- and LMW-types. Known gliadin and glutenin sequences were largely determined through cloning and sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. This time-consuming process prevents us to intensively study the variation of each orthologous gene copy among cultivars. The throughput and sequencing length of Pacific Bioscience RS (PacBio) single molecule sequencing platform make it feasible to construct contiguous and non-chimeric RNA sequences. We assembled 424 wheat storage protein transcripts from ten wheat cultivars by using just one single-molecule-real-time…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Phenotypic diversification by enhanced genome restructuring after induction of multiple DNA double-strand breaks.

DNA double-strand break (DSB)-mediated genome rearrangements are assumed to provide diverse raw genetic materials enabling accelerated adaptive evolution; however, it remains unclear about the consequences of massive simultaneous DSB formation in cells and their resulting phenotypic impact. Here, we establish an artificial genome-restructuring technology by conditionally introducing multiple genomic DSBs in vivo using a temperature-dependent endonuclease TaqI. Application in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana generates strains with phenotypes, including improved ethanol production from xylose at higher temperature and increased plant biomass, that are stably inherited to offspring after multiple passages. High-throughput genome resequencing revealed that these strains harbor diverse rearrangements, including copy…

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