July 19, 2019  |  

Improved maize reference genome with single-molecule technologies.

Complete and accurate reference genomes and annotations provide fundamental tools for characterization of genetic and functional variation. These resources facilitate the determination of biological processes and support translation of research findings into improved and sustainable agricultural technologies. Many reference genomes for crop plants have been generated over the past decade, but these genomes are often fragmented and missing complex repeat regions. Here we report the assembly and annotation of a reference genome of maize, a genetic and agricultural model species, using single-molecule real-time sequencing and high-resolution optical mapping. Relative to the previous reference genome, our assembly features a 52-fold increase in contig length and notable improvements in the assembly of intergenic spaces and centromeres. Characterization of the repetitive portion of the genome revealed more than 130,000 intact transposable elements, allowing us to identify transposable element lineage expansions that are unique to maize. Gene annotations were updated using 111,000 full-length transcripts obtained by single-molecule real-time sequencing. In addition, comparative optical mapping of two other inbred maize lines revealed a prevalence of deletions in regions of low gene density and maize lineage-specific genes.

July 7, 2019  |  

Potential probiotic-associated traits revealed from completed high quality genome sequence of Lactobacillus fermentum 3872.

The article provides an overview of the genomic features of Lactobacillus fermentum strain 3872. The genomic sequence reported here is one of three L. fermentum genome sequences completed to date. Comparative genomic analysis allowed the identification of genes that may be contributing to enhanced probiotic properties of this strain. In particular, the genes encoding putative mucus binding proteins, collagen-binding proteins, class III bacteriocin, as well as exopolysaccharide and prophage-related genes were identified. Genes related to bacterial aggregation and survival under harsh conditions in the gastrointestinal tract, along with the genes required for vitamin production were also found.

July 7, 2019  |  

An improved genome assembly uncovers prolific tandem repeats in Atlantic cod.

The first Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) genome assembly published in 2011 was one of the early genome assemblies exclusively based on high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. Since then, rapid advances in sequencing technologies have led to a multitude of assemblies generated for complex genomes, although many of these are of a fragmented nature with a significant fraction of bases in gaps. The development of long-read sequencing and improved software now enable the generation of more contiguous genome assemblies.By combining data from Illumina, 454 and the longer PacBio sequencing technologies, as well as integrating the results of multiple assembly programs, we have created a substantially improved version of the Atlantic cod genome assembly. The sequence contiguity of this assembly is increased fifty-fold and the proportion of gap-bases has been reduced fifteen-fold. Compared to other vertebrates, the assembly contains an unusual high density of tandem repeats (TRs). Indeed, retrospective analyses reveal that gaps in the first genome assembly were largely associated with these TRs. We show that 21% of the TRs across the assembly, 19% in the promoter regions and 12% in the coding sequences are heterozygous in the sequenced individual.The inclusion of PacBio reads combined with the use of multiple assembly programs drastically improved the Atlantic cod genome assembly by successfully resolving long TRs. The high frequency of heterozygous TRs within or in the vicinity of genes in the genome indicate a considerable standing genomic variation in Atlantic cod populations, which is likely of evolutionary importance.

July 7, 2019  |  

Whole-genome sequences of two closely related bacteria, Actinomyces sp. strain Chiba101 and Actinomyces denticolens DSM 20671(T).

Actinomyces sp. strain Chiba101, isolated from an arthritic leg joint of a pig raised in Japan, is a bacterium closely related to Actinomyces denticolens Here, we deciphered the complete genome sequence of Actinomyces sp. Chiba101 and the high-quality draft genome sequence of A. denticolens DSM 20671(T). Copyright © 2017 Kanesaki et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Whole-genome sequences of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates exhibiting decreased meropenem susceptibility.

We report here paired isogenic Burkholderia pseudomallei genomes obtained from three patients receiving intravenous meropenem for melioidosis treatment, with post-meropenem isolates developing decreased susceptibility. Two genomes were finished, and four were drafted to improved high-quality standard. These genomes will be used to identify meropenem resistance mechanisms in B. pseudomallei. Copyright © 2017 Price et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of tung tree (Vernicia fordii): Organization and phylogenetic relationships with other angiosperms.

Tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is an economically important tree widely cultivated for industrial oil production in China. To better understand the molecular basis of tung tree chloroplasts, we sequenced and characterized its genome using PacBio RS II sequencing platforms. The chloroplast genome was sequenced with 161,528?bp in length, composed with one pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,819?bp, which were separated by one small single copy (SSC; 18,758?bp) and one large single copy (LSC; 89,132?bp). The genome contains 114 genes, coding for 81 protein, four ribosomal RNAs and 29 transfer RNAs. An expansion with integration of an additional rps19 gene in the IR regions was identified. Compared to the chloroplast genome of Jatropha curcas, a species from the same family, the tung tree chloroplast genome is distinct with 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 82 indels. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that V. fordii is a sister species with J. curcas within the Eurosids I. The nucleotide sequence provides vital molecular information for understanding the biology of this important oil tree.

July 7, 2019  |  

The complete genome sequence of Exiguobacterium arabatum W-01 reveals potential probiotic functions.

Shrimp is extensively cultured worldwide. Shrimp farming is suffering from a variety of diseases. Probiotics are considered to be one of the effective methods to prevent and cure shrimp diseases. Exiguobacterium arabatum W-01, a gram-positive and orange-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from the intestine of a healthy Penaeus vannamei specimen. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a genome of 2,914,854 bp, with 48.02% GC content. In total, 3,083 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, with an average length of 843.98 bp and a mean GC content of 48.11%, accounting for 89.27% of the genome. Among these ORFs, 2,884 (93.5%) genes were classified into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) families comprising 21 functional categories, and 1,650 ORFs were classified into 83 functional Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. A total of 27 rRNA operons and 68 tRNAs were identified, with all 20 amino acids represented. In addition, 91 genomic islands, 68 potential prophages, and 33 tandem repeats, but no clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), were found. No resistance genes and only one virulence gene were identified. Among the 150 secreted proteins of E. arabatum W-01, a variety of transport system substrate-binding proteins, enzymes, and biosynthetic proteins, which play important roles in the uptake and metabolism of nutrients, were found. Two adherence-related protein genes and 31 flagellum-related protein genes were also identified. Taken together, these results indicate potential probiotic functions for E. arabatum W-01.© 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of the Serratia plymuthica strains 3Rp8 and 3Re4-18, two rhizosphere bacteria with antagonistic activity towards fungal phytopathogens and plant growth promoting abilities.

The Serratia plymuthica strains 3Rp8 and 3Re4-18 are motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacteria. Strain 3Rp8 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Brassica napus L. and strain 3Re4-18 from the endorhiza of Solanum tuberosum L. Studies have shown in vitro activity against the soil-borne fungi Verticillium dahliae Kleb., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of S. plymuthica 3Rp8 consisting of a single circular chromosome of 5.5 Mb that encodes 4954 protein-coding and 108 RNA-only encoding genes and of S. plymuthica 3Re4-18 consisting of a single circular chromosome of 5.4 Mb that encodes 4845 protein-coding and 109 RNA-only encoding genes. The whole genome sequences and annotations are available in NCBI under the locus numbers CP012096 and CP012097, respectively. The genome analyses revealed genes putatively responsible for the promising plant growth promoting and biocontrol properties including predicting factors such as secretion systems, iron scavenging siderophores, chitinases, secreted proteases, glucanases and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, as well as unique genomic islands.

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