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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Antibiotic resistance markers in Burkholderia pseudomallei strain Bp1651 identified by genome sequence analysis.

Burkholderia pseudomallei Bp1651 is resistant to several classes of antibiotics that are usually effective for treatment of melioidosis, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and ß-lactams such as penicillins (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid), cephalosporins (ceftazidime), and carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem). We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the Bp1651 genome and analyzed the sequence using comparative genomic analyses with susceptible strains, keyword searches of the annotation, publicly available antimicrobial resistance prediction tools, and published reports. More than 100 genes in the Bp1651 sequence were identified as potentially contributing to antimicrobial resistance. Most notably, we identified three previously uncharacterized point mutations in penA, which codes for a class…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic characterization of a large plasmid containing a bla NDM-1 gene carried on Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana C629 isolate from China.

The bla NDM-1 gene in Salmonella species is mostly reported in clinical cases, but is rarely isolated from red and white meat in China.A Salmonella Indiana (S. Indiana) isolate was cultured from a chicken carcass procured from a slaughterhouse in China. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against a panel of agents. Whole-genome sequencing of the isolate was carried out and data was analyzed.A large plasmid, denoted as plasmid pC629 (210,106 bp), containing a composite cassette, consisting of IS26-bla NDM-1-ble MBL -?trpF-tat-cutA-ISCR1-sul1-qacE?1-aadA2-dfrA12-intI1-IS26 was identified. The latter locus was physically linked with bla OXA-1, bla CTX-M-65, bla TEM-1-encoding genes. A mercury resistance operon merACDEPTR…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The blaOXA-23-associated transposons in the genome of Acinetobacter spp. represent an epidemiological situation of the species encountering carbapenems.

High rates of carbapenem resistance in the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii threaten public health and need to be scrutinized.A total of 356 A. baumannii and 50 non-baumannii Acinetobacter spp. (NBA) strains collected in 2013 throughout South Korea were studied. The type of blaOXA-23 transposon was determined by PCR mapping and molecular epidemiology was assessed by MLST. Twelve representative strains and two comparative A. baumannii were entirely sequenced by single-molecule real-time sequencing.The carbapenem resistance rate was 88% in A. baumannii, mainly due to blaOXA-23, with five exceptional cases associated with ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like. The blaOXA-23 gene in A. baumannii was carried either by…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of ESBL disseminating plasmids.

Bacteria producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) constitute a globally increasing problem that contributes to treatment complications and elevated death rates. The extremely successful dissemination by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae during the latest decades is a result of the combination of mobilization, evolution and horizontal spread of ß-lactamase genes on plasmids. In parallel, spread of these plasmids to particularly well-adapted bacterial clones (outbreak clones) has expanded. In this review we describe ESBL-producing bacteria and the genetic mechanisms for dissemination of ESBL resistance. We describe available methodology for studying plasmids and the importance of including plasmids in epidemiological typing as natural parts of the organisms.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii XH386 (ST208), a multi-drug resistant bacteria isolated from pediatric hospital in China.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an important bacterium that emerged as a significant nosocomial pathogen worldwide. The rise of A. baumannii was due to its multi-drug resistance (MDR), while it was difficult to treat multi-drug resistant A. baumannii with antibiotics, especially in pediatric patients for the therapeutic options with antibiotics were quite limited in pediatric patients. A. baumannii ST208 was identified as predominant sequence type of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii in the United States and China. As we knew, there was no complete genome sequence reproted for A. baumannii ST208, although several whole genome shotgun sequences had been reported. Here, we sequenced…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Coproduction of KPC-18 and VIM-1 carbapenemases by Enterobacter cloacae: Implications for newer ß-lactam-ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

Enterobacter cloacae strain G6809 with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems was identified from a patient in a long-term acute care hospital in Kentucky. G6809 belonged to sequence type (ST) 88 and carried two carbapenemase genes, blaKPC-18 and blaVIM-1. Whole-genome sequencing localized blaKPC-18 to the chromosome and blaVIM-1 to a 58-kb plasmid. The strain was highly resistant to ceftazidime-avibactam. Insidious coproduction of metallo-ß-lactamase with KPC-type carbapenemase has implications for the use of next-generation ß-lactam-ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae KP617, coproducing OXA-232 and NDM-1 carbapenemases, isolated in South Korea.

The prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae coproducing carbapenemase metallo-ß-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) and OXA-48 has been increasing globally since 2013. The complete genome of KP617 was sequenced and assembled into a circular chromosome and two plasmids. This sequence provides the genetic background for understanding the evolution of carbapenemase genes in K. pneumoniae KP617.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae U25, a hypermucoviscous, multidrug resistant, biofilm producing isolate from India.

Klebsiella pneumoniae U25 is a multidrug resistant strain isolated from a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, India. Here, we report the complete annotated genome sequence of strain U25 obtained using PacBio RSII. This is the first report of the whole genome of K. pneumoniaespecies from Chennai. It consists of a single circular chromosome of size 5,491,870-bp and two plasmids of size 211,813 and 172,619-bp. The genes associated with multidrug resistance were identified. The chromosome of U25 was found to have eight antibiotic resistant genes [blaOXA-1,blaSHV-28, aac(6′)1b-cr,catB3, oqxAB, dfrA1]. The plasmid pMGRU25-001 was found to have only one resistant gene (catA1)…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Colistin-Nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 654 with blaNDM-1 Arrives in North America.

This study describes 3 different blaNDM-1 genetic platforms in 3 different species obtained from the same patient who was directly transferred to an institution in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, following a prolonged hospital stay in India. The blaNDM-1 in the Escherichia coli isolate was located on a 176-kb IncA/C plasmid contained within an ISCR1 region. The blaNDM-1 in the Providencia rettgeri isolate was located on a 117-kb IncT plasmid contained within Tn3000, while the blaNDM-1 in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate was located on the chromosome within an ISCR3 region. This report highlights the plasticity of the genetic regions and environments associated…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate harboring two copies of blaIMP-34 encoding a metallo-ß-lactamase.

A carbapenem-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, NCGM1984, was isolated in 2012 from a hospitalized patient in Japan. Immunochromatographic assay showed that the isolate was positive for IMP-type metallo-ß-lactamase. Complete genome sequencing revealed that NCGM1984 harbored two copies of blaIMP-34, located at different sites on the chromosome. Each blaIMP-34 was present in the same structures of the class 1 integrons, tnpA(ISPa7)-intI1-qacG-blaIMP-34-aac(6′)-Ib-qacEdelta1-sul1-orf5-tniBdelta-tniA. The isolate belonged to multilocus sequence typing ST235, one of the international high-risk clones. IMP-34, with an amino acid substitution (Glu126Gly) compared with IMP-1, hydrolyzed all ß-lactamases tested except aztreonam, and its catalytic activities were similar to IMP-1. This is…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of VCC-1, a novel ambler class A carbapenemase from Vibrio cholerae isolated from imported retail shrimp sold in Canada.

One of the core goals of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) is to monitor major meat commodities for antimicrobial resistance. Targeted studies with methodologies based on core surveillance protocols are used to examine other foods, e.g., seafood, for antimicrobial resistance to detect resistances of concern to public health. Here we report the discovery of a novel Ambler class A carbapenemase that was identified in a nontoxigenic strain of Vibrio cholerae (N14-02106) isolated from shrimp that was sold for human consumption in Canada. V. cholerae N14-02106 was resistant to penicillins, carbapenems, and monobactam antibiotics; however, PCR did…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Mechanisms involved in acquisition of blaNDM genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY plasmids.

blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Prediction of putative resistance islands in a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 2 clinical isolate.

We investigated the whole genome sequence (WGS) of a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate belonging to the global clone 2 (GC2) and predicted resistance islands using a software tool.A. baumannii strain YU-R612 was isolated from the sputum of a 61-yr-old man with sepsis. The WGS of the YU-R612 strain was obtained by using the PacBio RS II Sequencing System (Pacific Biosciences Inc., USA). Antimicrobial resistance genes and resistance islands were analyzed by using ResFinder and Genomic Island Prediction software (GIPSy), respectively.The YU-R612 genome consisted of a circular chromosome (ca. 4,075 kb) and two plasmids (ca. 74 kb and 5 kb). Its…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The challenges of implementing next generation sequencing across a large healthcare system, and the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibilities of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the healthcare system of the U.S. Department of Defense.

We sought to: 1) provide an overview of the genomic epidemiology of an extensive collection of carbapenemase-producing bacteria (CPB) collected in the U.S. Department of Defense health system; 2) increase awareness of the public availability of the sequences, isolates, and customized antimicrobial resistance database of that system; and 3) illustrate challenges and offer mitigations for implementing next generation sequencing (NGS) across large health systems.Prospective surveillance and system-wide implementation of NGS.288-hospital healthcare network.All phenotypically carbapenem resistant bacteria underwent CarbaNP® testing and PCR, followed by NGS. Commercial (Newbler and Geneious), on-line (ResFinder), and open-source software (Btrim, FLASh, Bowtie2, an Samtools) were used…

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