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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A Clostridioides difficile bacteriophage genome encodes functional binary toxin-associated genes.

Pathogenic clostridia typically produce toxins as virulence factors which cause severe diseases in both humans and animals. Whereas many clostridia like e.g., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum or Clostridium tetani were shown to contain toxin-encoding plasmids, only toxin genes located on the chromosome were detected in Clostridioides difficile so far. In this study, we determined, annotated, and analyzed the complete genome of the bacteriophage phiSemix9P1 using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT). To our knowledge, this represents the first C. difficile-associated bacteriophage genome that carries a complete functional binary toxin locus in its genome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

High metabolic versatility of different toxigenic and non-toxigenic Clostridioides difficile isolates.

Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a major nosocomial pathogen with an increasing number of community-acquired infections causing symptoms from mild diarrhea to life-threatening colitis. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is considered to be mainly associated with the production of genome-encoded toxins A and B. In addition, some strains also encode and express the binary toxin CDT. However; a large number of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains have been isolated from the human gut and the environment. In this study, we characterized the growth behavior, motility and fermentation product formation of 17 different C. difficile isolates comprising five different major genomic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Clostridioides difficile epidemic strain DH/NAP11/106/ST-42, isolated from stool from a pediatric patient with diarrhea.

We report here the complete genome sequence of Clostridioides difficile strain DH/NAP11/106/ST-42, which is now the most common strain causing C. difficile infection among U.S. adults. This strain was isolated from the stool from a hospitalized pediatric patient with frequent relapses of C. difficile infection. Copyright © 2017 Ozer et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence and analysis of Peptoclostridium difficile strain ZJCDC-S82.

Peptoclostridium difficile (Clostridium difficile) is the major pathogen associated with infectious diarrhea in humans. Concomitant with the increased incidence of C. difficile infection worldwide, there is an increasing concern regarding this infection type. This study reports a draft assembly and detailed sequence analysis of C. difficile strain ZJCDC-S82. The de novo assembled genome was 4.19 Mb in size, which includes 4,013 protein-coding genes, 41 rRNA genes, and 84 tRNA genes. Along with the nuclear genome, we also assembled sequencing information for a single plasmid consisting of 11,930 nucleotides. Comparative genomic analysis of C. difficile ZJCDC-S82 and two other previously published…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Use of single molecule sequencing for comparative genomics of an environmental and a clinical isolate of Clostridium difficile ribotype 078.

How the pathogen Clostridium difficile might survive, evolve and be transferred between reservoirs within the natural environment is poorly understood. Some ribotypes are found both in clinical and environmental settings. Whether these strains are distinct from each another and evolve in the specific environments is not established. The possession of a highly mobile genome has contributed to the genetic diversity and ongoing evolution of C. difficile. Interpretations of genetic diversity have been limited by fragmented assemblies resulting from short-read length sequencing approaches and by a limited understanding of epigenetic regulation of diversity. To address this, single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of four toxigenic Clostridium difficile clinical isolates from patients of the lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA.

Complete genome sequences of four toxigenicClostridium difficileisolates from patients in the lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA, were achieved. These isolates represent four common sequence types (ST1, ST2, ST8, and ST42) belonging to two distinct phylogenetic clades. All isolates have a 4.0- to 4.2-Mb circular chromosome, and one carries a phage. Copyright © 2018 Yin et al.

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