July 7, 2019  |  

A Clostridioides difficile bacteriophage genome encodes functional binary toxin-associated genes.

Pathogenic clostridia typically produce toxins as virulence factors which cause severe diseases in both humans and animals. Whereas many clostridia like e.g., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum or Clostridium tetani were shown to contain toxin-encoding plasmids, only toxin genes located on the chromosome were detected in Clostridioides difficile so far. In this study, we determined, annotated, and analyzed the complete genome of the bacteriophage phiSemix9P1 using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT). To our knowledge, this represents the first C. difficile-associated bacteriophage genome that carries a complete functional binary toxin locus in its genome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

High metabolic versatility of different toxigenic and non-toxigenic Clostridioides difficile isolates.

Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a major nosocomial pathogen with an increasing number of community-acquired infections causing symptoms from mild diarrhea to life-threatening colitis. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is considered to be mainly associated with the production of genome-encoded toxins A and B. In addition, some strains also encode and express the binary toxin CDT. However; a large number of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains have been isolated from the human gut and the environment. In this study, we characterized the growth behavior, motility and fermentation product formation of 17 different C. difficile isolates comprising five different major genomic clades and five different toxin inventories in relation to the C. difficile model strains 630?erm and R20291. Within 33 determined fermentation products, we identified two yet undescribed products (5-methylhexanoate and 4-(methylthio)-butanoate) of C. difficile. Our data revealed major differences in the fermentation products obtained after growth in a medium containing casamino acids and glucose as carbon and energy source. While the metabolism of branched chain amino acids remained comparable in all isolates, the aromatic amino acid uptake and metabolism and the central carbon metabolism-associated fermentation pathways varied strongly between the isolates. The patterns obtained followed neither the classification of the clades nor the ribotyping patterns nor the toxin distribution. As the toxin formation is strongly connected to the metabolism, our data allow an improved differentiation of C. difficile strains. The observed metabolic flexibility provides the optimal basis for the adaption in the course of infection and to changing conditions in different environments including the human gut. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Clostridioides difficile epidemic strain DH/NAP11/106/ST-42, isolated from stool from a pediatric patient with diarrhea.

We report here the complete genome sequence of Clostridioides difficile strain DH/NAP11/106/ST-42, which is now the most common strain causing C. difficile infection among U.S. adults. This strain was isolated from the stool from a hospitalized pediatric patient with frequent relapses of C. difficile infection. Copyright © 2017 Ozer et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence and analysis of Peptoclostridium difficile strain ZJCDC-S82.

Peptoclostridium difficile (Clostridium difficile) is the major pathogen associated with infectious diarrhea in humans. Concomitant with the increased incidence of C. difficile infection worldwide, there is an increasing concern regarding this infection type. This study reports a draft assembly and detailed sequence analysis of C. difficile strain ZJCDC-S82. The de novo assembled genome was 4.19 Mb in size, which includes 4,013 protein-coding genes, 41 rRNA genes, and 84 tRNA genes. Along with the nuclear genome, we also assembled sequencing information for a single plasmid consisting of 11,930 nucleotides. Comparative genomic analysis of C. difficile ZJCDC-S82 and two other previously published strains, such as M120 and CD630, showed extensive similarity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genetic diversity among C. difficile strains was not influenced by geographic location. Evolutionary analysis suggested that four genes encoding surface proteins exhibited positive selection in C. difficile ZJCDC-S82. Codon usage analysis indicated that C. difficile ZJCDC-S82 had high codon usage bias toward A/U-ended codons. Furthermore, codon usage patterns in C. difficile ZJCDC-S82 were predominantly affected by mutation pressure. Our results provide detailed information pertaining to the C. difficile genome associated with a strain from mainland China. This analysis will facilitate the understanding of genomic diversity and evolution of C. difficile strains in this region.

July 7, 2019  |  

Use of single molecule sequencing for comparative genomics of an environmental and a clinical isolate of Clostridium difficile ribotype 078.

How the pathogen Clostridium difficile might survive, evolve and be transferred between reservoirs within the natural environment is poorly understood. Some ribotypes are found both in clinical and environmental settings. Whether these strains are distinct from each another and evolve in the specific environments is not established. The possession of a highly mobile genome has contributed to the genetic diversity and ongoing evolution of C. difficile. Interpretations of genetic diversity have been limited by fragmented assemblies resulting from short-read length sequencing approaches and by a limited understanding of epigenetic regulation of diversity. To address this, single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing was used in this study as it produces high quality genome sequences, with resolution of repeat regions (including those found in mobile elements) and can generate data to determine methylation modifications across the sequence (the methylome).Chromosomal rearrangements and ribosomal operon duplications were observed in both genomes. The rearrangements occurred at insertion sites within two mobile genetic elements (MGEs), Tn6164 and Tn6293, present only in the M120 and CD105HS27 genomes, respectively. The gene content of these two transposons differ considerably which could impact upon horizontal gene transfer; differences include CDSs encoding methylases and a conjugative prophage only in Tn6164. To investigate mechanisms which could affect MGE transfer, the methylome, restriction modification (RM)  and the CRISPR/Cas systems were characterised for each strain. Notably, the environmental isolate, CD105HS27, does not share a consensus motif for (m4)C methylation, but has one additional spacer  when compared to the clinical isolate M120.These findings show key differences between the two strains in terms of their genetic capacity for MGE transfer. The carriage of horizontally transferred genes appear to have genome wide effects based on two different methylation patterns. The CRISPR/Cas system appears active although perhaps slow to evolve. Data suggests that both mechanisms are functional and impact upon horizontal gene transfer and genome evolution within C. difficile.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of four toxigenic Clostridium difficile clinical isolates from patients of the lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA.

Complete genome sequences of four toxigenicClostridium difficileisolates from patients in the lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA, were achieved. These isolates represent four common sequence types (ST1, ST2, ST8, and ST42) belonging to two distinct phylogenetic clades. All isolates have a 4.0- to 4.2-Mb circular chromosome, and one carries a phage. Copyright © 2018 Yin et al.

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