July 19, 2019  |  

Major improvements to the Heliconius melpomene genome assembly used to confirm 10 chromosome fusion events in 6 million years of butterfly evolution.

The Heliconius butterflies are a widely studied adaptive radiation of 46 species spread across Central and South America, several of which are known to hybridize in the wild. Here, we present a substantially improved assembly of the Heliconius melpomene genome, developed using novel methods that should be applicable to improving other genome assemblies produced using short read sequencing. First, we whole-genome-sequenced a pedigree to produce a linkage map incorporating 99% of the genome. Second, we incorporated haplotype scaffolds extensively to produce a more complete haploid version of the draft genome. Third, we incorporated ~20x coverage of Pacific Biosciences sequencing, and scaffolded the haploid genome using an assembly of this long-read sequence. These improvements result in a genome of 795 scaffolds, 275 Mb in length, with an N50 length of 2.1 Mb, an N50 number of 34, and with 99% of the genome placed, and 84% anchored on chromosomes. We use the new genome assembly to confirm that the Heliconius genome underwent 10 chromosome fusions since the split with its sister genus Eueides, over a period of about 6 million yr. Copyright © 2016 Davey et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera.

Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393?Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140?My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complex modular architecture around a simple toolkit of wing pattern genes

Identifying the genomic changes that control morphological variation and understanding how they generate diversity is a major goal of evolutionary biology. In Heliconius butterflies, a small number of genes control the development of diverse wing colour patterns. Here, we used full-genome sequencing of individuals across the Heliconius erato radiation and closely related species to characterize genomic variation associated with wing pattern diversity. We show that variation around colour pattern genes is highly modular, with narrow genomic intervals associated with specific differences in colour and pattern. This modular architecture explains the diversity of colour patterns and provides a flexible mechanism for rapid morphological diversification.

July 7, 2019  |  

No evidence for maintenance of a sympatric Heliconius species barrier by chromosomal inversions.

Mechanisms that suppress recombination are known to help maintain species barriers by preventing the breakup of coadapted gene combinations. The sympatric butterfly species Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius cydno are separated by many strong barriers, but the species still hybridize infrequently in the wild, and around 40% of the genome is influenced by introgression. We tested the hypothesis that genetic barriers between the species are maintained by inversions or other mechanisms that reduce between-species recombination rate. We constructed fine-scale recombination maps for Panamanian populations of both species and their hybrids to directly measure recombination rate within and between species, and generated long sequence reads to detect inversions. We find no evidence for a systematic reduction in recombination rates in F1 hybrids, and also no evidence for inversions longer than 50 kb that might be involved in generating or maintaining species barriers. This suggests that mechanisms leading to global or local reduction in recombination do not play a significant role in the maintenance of species barriers between H. melpomene and H. cydno.

July 7, 2019  |  

Butterfly genomics: insights from the genome of Melitaea cinxia

The first lepidopteran genome (Bombyx mori) was published in 2004. Ten years later the genome of Melitaea cinxia came out as the third butterfly genome published, and the first eukaryotic genome sequenced in Finland. Owing to Ilkka Hanski, the M. cinxia system in the Åland Islands has become a famous model for metapopulation biology. More than 20 years of research on this system provides a strong ecological basis upon which a genetic framework could be built. Genetic knowledge is an essential addition for understanding eco-evolutionary dynamics and the genetic basis of variability in life history traits. Here we review the process of the M. cinxia genome project, its implications for lepidopteran genome evolution, and describe how the genome has been used for gene expression studies to identify genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation. Finally, we introduce some future possibilities and challenges for genomic research in M. cinxia and other Lepidoptera.

July 7, 2019  |  

A high-coverage draft genome of the mycalesine butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

The mycalesine butterfly Bicyclus anynana , the ‘Squinting bush brown’, is a model organism in the study of lepidopteran ecology, development and evolution. Here, we present a draft genome sequence for B. anynana to serve as a genomics resource for current and future studies of this important model species.Seven libraries with insert sizes ranging from 350 bp to 20 kb were constructed using DNA from an inbred female and sequenced using both Illumina and PacBio technology. 128 Gb raw Illumina data were filtered to 124 Gb and assembled to a final size of 475 Mb (~260X assembly coverage). Contigs were scaffolded using mate-pair, transcriptome and PacBio data into 10,800 sequences with an N50 of 638 kb (longest scaffold 5 Mb). The genome is comprised of 26% repetitive elements, and encodes a total of 22,642 predicted protein-coding genes. Recovery of a BUSCO set of core metazoan genes was almost complete (98%). Overall, these metrics compare well with other recently published lepidopteran genomes.We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Bicyclus anynana . The genome assembly and annotated gene models are available at LepBase ( http://ensembl.lepbase.org/index.html ).

July 7, 2019  |  

Copy number variation and expression analysis reveals a nonorthologous pinta gene family member involved in butterfly vision.

Vertebrate (cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein) and Drosophila (prolonged depolarization afterpotential is not apparent [PINTA]) proteins with a CRAL-TRIO domain transport retinal-based chromophores that bind to opsin proteins and are necessary for phototransduction. The CRAL-TRIO domain gene family is composed of genes that encode proteins with a common N-terminal structural domain. Although there is an expansion of this gene family in Lepidoptera, there is no lepidopteran ortholog of pinta. Further, the function of these genes in lepidopterans has not yet been established. Here, we explored the molecular evolution and expression of CRAL-TRIO domain genes in the butterfly Heliconius melpomene in order to identify a member of this gene family as a candidate chromophore transporter. We generated and searched a four tissue transcriptome and searched a reference genome for CRAL-TRIO domain genes. We expanded an insect CRAL-TRIO domain gene phylogeny to include H. melpomene and used 18 genomes from 4 subspecies to assess copy number variation. A transcriptome-wide differential expression analysis comparing four tissue types identified a CRAL-TRIO domain gene, Hme CTD31, upregulated in heads suggesting a potential role in vision for this CRAL-TRIO domain gene. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed that Hme CTD31 and its protein product are expressed in the retina, specifically in primary and secondary pigment cells and in tracheal cells. Sequencing of eye protein extracts that fluoresce in the ultraviolet identified Hme CTD31 as a possible chromophore binding protein. Although we found several recent duplications and numerous copy number variants in CRAL-TRIO domain genes, we identified a single copy pinta paralog that likely binds the chromophore in butterflies.© The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

July 7, 2019  |  

ChIP-Seq-annotated Heliconius erato genome highlights patterns of cis-regulatory evolution in Lepidoptera.

Uncovering phylogenetic patterns of cis-regulatory evolution remains a fundamental goal for evolutionary and developmental biology. Here, we characterize the evolution of regulatory loci in butterflies and moths using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) annotation of regulatory elements across three stages of head development. In the process we provide a high-quality, functionally annotated genome assembly for the butterfly, Heliconius erato. Comparing cis-regulatory element conservation across six lepidopteran genomes, we find that regulatory sequences evolve at a pace similar to that of protein-coding regions. We also observe that elements active at multiple developmental stages are markedly more conserved than elements with stage-specific activity. Surprisingly, we also find that stage-specific proximal and distal regulatory elements evolve at nearly identical rates. Our study provides a benchmark for genome-wide patterns of regulatory element evolution in insects, and it shows that developmental timing of activity strongly predicts patterns of regulatory sequence evolution. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

Conservation genetics of an endangered grassland butterfly (Oarisma poweshiek) reveals historically high gene flow despite recent and rapid range loss

1. In poorly dispersing species gene flow can be facilitated when suitable habitat is widespread, allowing for increased dispersal between neighbouring locations. The Poweshiek skipperling [Oarisma poweshiek (Parker)], a federally endangered butterfly, has undergone a rapid, recent demographic decline following the loss of tallgrass prairie and fen habitats range wide. The loss of habitat, now restricted geographic range, and poor dispersal ability have left O. poweshiek at increased risk of extinction. 2. We studied the population genetics of six remaining populations of O. poweshiek in order to test the hypothesis that gene flow was historically high despite limited long-distance dispersal capability. Utilising nine microsatellite loci developed by PacBio sequencing, we tested for patterns of isolation by distance, low population genetic structure and alternative gene flow models. 3. Populations from southern Manitoba, Canada to the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, USA are only weakly genetically differentiated despite having low diversity. We found no support for isolation by distance, and Bayesian estimates of historical gene flow support our hypothesis that high levels of gene flow previously connected populations from Michigan to Wisconsin. 4. Prairie grasslands have been reduced tremendously over the past century, but the low mobility of O. poweshiek suggests that rapid loss of populations over the past decade cannot be simply explained by fragmentation of habitat. 5. As a species at high risk of extinction, understanding historical processes of gene flow will allow for informed management decisions with respect to head-starting individuals for population reintroductions and for conserving networks of habitat that will allow for high levels of gene flow.

July 7, 2019  |  

Lepidoptera genomes: current knowledge, gaps and future directions.

Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are one of the most ecologically diverse and speciose insect orders. With recent advances in genomics, new Lepidoptera genomes are regularly being sequenced, and many of them are playing principal roles in genomics studies, particularly in the fields of phylo-genomics and functional genomics. Thus far, assembled genomes are only available for <10 of the 43 Lepidoptera superfamilies. Nearly all are model species, found in the speciose clade Ditrysia. Community support for Lepidoptera genomics is growing with successful management and dissemination of data and analytical tools in centralized databases. With genomic studies quickly becoming integrated with ecological and evolutionary research, the Lepidoptera community will unquestionably benefit from new high-quality reference genomes that are more evenly distributed throughout the order. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

July 7, 2019  |  

Supergene evolution triggered by the introgression of a chromosomal inversion.

Supergenes are groups of tightly linked loci whose variation is inherited as a single Mendelian locus and are a common genetic architecture for complex traits under balancing selection [1-8]. Supergene alleles are long-range haplotypes with numerous mutations underlying distinct adaptive strategies, often maintained in linkage disequilibrium through the suppression of recombination by chromosomal rearrangements [1, 5, 7-9]. However, the mechanism governing the formation of supergenes is not well understood and poses the paradox of establishing divergent functional haplotypes in the face of recombination. Here, we show that the formation of the supergene alleles encoding mimicry polymorphism in the butterfly Heliconius numata is associated with the introgression of a divergent, inverted chromosomal segment. Haplotype divergence and linkage disequilibrium indicate that supergene alleles, each allowing precise wing-pattern resemblance to distinct butterfly models, originate from over a million years of independent chromosomal evolution in separate lineages. These “superalleles” have evolved from a chromosomal inversion captured by introgression and maintained in balanced polymorphism, triggering supergene inheritance. This mode of evolution involving the introgression of a chromosomal rearrangement is likely to be a common feature of complex structural polymorphisms associated with the coexistence of distinct adaptive syndromes. This shows that the reticulation of genealogies may have a powerful influence on the evolution of genetic architectures in nature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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