We performed 16S rDNA sequencing of tilapia fecal samples to analyze changes in tilapia gut contents after cultivation of the fish in the presence of sandwich-like floating beds of Chinese medicinal herbs (5 and 10% planting-areas; 5% Polygonum cuspidatum). The interactive effects between water quality and blood and hepatic pro- and anti-inflammatory concentrations were also assessed. Our results showed that the water quality (i.e., NO3-N, NO2-N, TP removal rates) improved, and the abundance of Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria increased. The abundance of Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Saccharibacteria, and Actinobacteria showed both significant seasonal decreases and increases in the presence of P. cuspidatum (increases in August and decreases in July). Fish blood and hepatic IL-10 and IFN-? levels (together with fish sampled in September) significantly increased in the P. cuspidatum group sampled in August, while those of TNF-a (10% sandwich-like, P. cuspidatum), IL-1ß (P. cuspidatum), IL-8 (5% sandwich-like in September, S905S) significantly decreased. Heat shock proteins 60 and 70 levels significantly increased in the P. cuspidatum group, and complement C3 and C4 concentrations significantly increased in S905S. This study demonstrated that enhanced immunity through the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins was sustained throughout development until harvest, particularly in fish grown with P. cuspidatum.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ammopiptanthus nanus is a rare broad-leaved shrub that is found in the desert and arid regions of Central Asia. This plant species exhibits extremely high tolerance to drought and freezing and has been used in abiotic tolerance research in plants. As a relic of the tertiary period, A. nanus is of great significance to plant biogeographic research in the ancient Mediterranean region. Here, we report a draft genome assembly using the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) platform and gene annotation for A. nanus.A total of 64.72 Gb of raw PacBio sequel reads were generated from four 20-kb libraries. After filtering, 64.53 Gb of clean reads were obtained, giving 72.59× coverage depth. Assembly using Canu gave an assembly length of 823.74 Mb, with a contig N50 of 2.76 Mb. The final size of the assembled A. nanus genome was close to the 889 Mb estimated by k-mer analysis. The gene annotation completeness was evaluated using Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs; 1,327 of the 1,440 conserved genes (92.15%) could be found in the A. nanus assembly. Genome annotation revealed that 74.08% of the A. nanus genome is composed of repetitive elements and 53.44% is composed of long terminal repeat elements. We predicted ?37,188 protein-coding genes, of which 96.53% were functionally annotated.The genomic sequences of A. nanus could be a valuable source for comparative genomic analysis in the legume family and will be useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships of the Thermopsideae and the evolutionary response of plant species to the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau uplift.
Plant growth-promoting effect and genomic analysis of the beneficial endophyte Streptomyces sp. KLBMP 5084 isolated from halophyte Limonium sinense
Background and aims: Soil salinity is a worldwide environmental problem that can hinder plant development and therefore negatively impact crop production. Inoculation of halophytic plants with plant growth-promoting (PGP) actinobacteria has been suggested as one strategy to improve salt tolerance. Here we performed a glasshouse experiment to test the effect of a PGP halotolerant endophytic actinomycete strain, KLBMP 5084 on the performance of the halophyte Limonium sinense under conditions of salt stress. Methods: Strain KLBMP 5084 was identified and screened for multiple PGP traits. The complete genome of strain KLBMP 5084 was sequenced and analyzed. L. sinense control seedlings (no inoculation) and seedlings inoculated with KLBMP 5084 were given different NaCl (0, 100 and 250 mM) salt-stress treatments. Growth parameters and physiological responses of L. sinense were determined after harvest. Results: Compared with the control, plants inoculated with strain KLBMP 5084 had greater in fresh weight, root length, leaf length and total chlorophyll and proline contents under both normal and high salinity conditions. Compared with control, inoculated plants had significantly lower leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content and significantly more antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, inoculated plants had significantly lower accumulation of Na+ in both leaves and roots under high salt-stress conditions. Genomic analysis of strain KLBMP 5084 revealed many PGP related genes, including some genes putatively involved in salt tolerance and harsh environment adaptation. Conclusion: Strain KLBMP 5084 seems to confer salt tolerance to host plant L. sinense through more than one mechanism, suggesting KLBMP 5084 could be a strong PGP agent to improve plant yields and tolerance to salinity stress.
Complete genome sequence of endophyte Bacillus flexus KLBMP 4941 reveals its plant growth promotion mechanism and genetic basis for salt tolerance.
Bacillus flexus KLBMP 4941 is a halotolerant endophyte isolated from the halophyte Limonium sinense. This strain can improve host seedling growth under salt stress conditions. We here report the complete genome information of endophyte KLBMP 4941. It has a circular chromosome and two plasmids for a total genome 4,104,242 bp in size with a G+C content of 38.09%. Genes related to plant growth promotion (PGP), such as those associated with nitrogen fixation, siderophore, spermidine, and acetoin synthesis were found in the KLBMP 4941 genome. Some genes responsible for high salinity tolerance, like genes associated with the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, glycine betaine transporter, and betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase were also found in the KLBMP 4941 genome. The genome analysis will provide better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the promotion of plant growth in strain KLBMP 4941 under salt stress conditions and its ability to adapt to coastal salt marsh habitats, and provide a basis for its further biotechnological applications in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.