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Friday, July 19, 2019

Resistance determinants and mobile genetic elements of an NDM-1-encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are emerging as a serious infectious disease challenge. These strains can accumulate many antibiotic resistance genes though horizontal transfer of genetic elements, those for ß-lactamases being of particular concern. Some ß-lactamases are active on a broad spectrum of ß-lactams including the last-resort carbapenems. The gene for the broad-spectrum and carbapenem-active metallo-ß-lactamase NDM-1 is rapidly spreading. We present the complete genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, the first U.S. isolate found to encode NDM-1, and describe its repertoire of antibiotic-resistance genes and mutations, including genes for eight ß-lactamases and 15 additional antibiotic-resistance enzymes. To elucidate the evolution of this…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

A comparative analysis of methylome profiles of Campylobacter jejuni sheep abortion isolate and gastroenteric strains using PacBio data.

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastrointestinal disease and small ruminant abortions in the United States. The recent emergence of a highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni subsp. jejuni sheep abortion clone (clone SA) in the United States, and that strain’s association with human disease, has resulted in a heightened awareness of the zoonotic potential of this organism. Pacific Biosciences’ Single Molecule, Real-Time sequencing technology was used to explore the variation in the genome-wide methylation patterns of the abortifacient clone SA (IA3902) and phenotypically distinct gastrointestinal-specific C. jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176). Several notable differences were discovered that…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Shifting fitness and epistatic landscapes reflect trade-offs along an evolutionary pathway.

Nature repurposes proteins via evolutionary processes. Such adaptation can come at the expense of the original protein’s function, which is a trade-off of adaptation. We sought to examine other potential adaptive trade-offs. We measured the effect on ampicillin resistance of ~12,500 unique single amino acid mutants of the TEM-1, TEM-17, TEM-19, and TEM-15 ß-lactamase alleles, which constitute an adaptive path in the evolution of cefotaxime resistance. These protein fitness landscapes were compared and used to calculate epistatic interactions between these mutations and the two mutations in the pathway (E104K and G238S). This series of protein fitness landscapes provides a systematic,…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Mechanisms of evolution in high-consequence drug resistance plasmids.

The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content) of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. This analysis revealed that plasmid reorganizations occurring in the natural context of colonization of human hosts…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A novel Tn3-like composite transposon harboring blaVIM-1 in Klebsiella pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae isolated from river water.

We present a new plasmid (pOW16C2) with a novel Tn3-like transposon harboring blaVIM-1 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from river water in Switzerland.Complete nucleotide sequence of pOW16C2 was obtained using a Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing approach and coding sequences were predicted.The 59,228?bp sequence included a typical IncN-like backbone and a mosaic structure with blaVIM-1, aacA4, aphA15, aadA1, catB2, qnrS1, sul1, and dfrA14 conferring resistance to carbapenems and other ß-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, quinolones, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, respectively. Most of these resistance genes were inserted in a class 1 integron that was embedded in a novel Tn3-like composite transposon.IncN plasmids…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Analysis of a draft genome sequence of Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC 2395 producing bafilomycin antibiotics.

Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC 2395, producing bafilomycin antibiotics belonging to plecomacrolide group, was isolated from a soil sample at Mt. Jiri, Korea. The draft genome sequence contains 8.04 Mb with 73.6% G+C content and 7,810 open reading frames. All the genes for aerial mycelium and spore formations were confirmed in this draft genome. In phylogenetic analysis of MurE proteins (UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate:DAP ligase) in a conserved dcw (division of cell wall) locus, MurE proteins of Kitasatospora species were placed in a separate clade between MurEs of Streptomyces species incorporating LL-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) and MurEs of Saccharopolyspora erythraea as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis ligating…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Surveillance of Klebsiella pneumoniae and antibiotic resistance a retrospective and comparative study through a period in Nepal

Among the Enterobacteriacea Klebsiella pneumoniae is for the most part obtained from clinical samples and most probable cause of a typical form of primary pneumonia. It can also responsible for a variety of extrapulmonary infections, counting enteritis and meningitis in infants, urinary tract infections in children and adults and septicaemia in all age groups. Like wise these pathogens are significant cause of hospital acquired infections right through the world. The remarkable increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria noticed in recent years represents a considerable challenge to public health microbiology worldwide. Klebsiellae have a tendency to possess antibiotic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Sequencing of plasmids pAMBL1 and pAMBL2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals a blaVIM-1 amplification causing high-level carbapenem resistance.

Carbapenemases are a major concern for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Although plasmids are responsible for the spread of resistance genes among these pathogens, there is limited information on the nature of the mobile genetic elements carrying carbapenemases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.We combined data from two different next-generation sequencing platforms, Illumina HiSeq2000 and PacBio RSII, to obtain the complete nucleotide sequences of two blaVIM-1-carrying plasmids (pAMBL1 and pAMBL2) isolated from P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.Plasmid pAMBL1 has 26?440 bp and carries a RepA_C family replication protein. pAMBL1 is similar to plasmids pNOR-2000 and pKLC102 from P. aeruginosa and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First detection of Klebsiella variicola producing OXA-181 carbapenemase in fresh vegetable imported from Asia to Switzerland.

The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health services. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh vegetables and spices imported from Asia to Switzerland.Twenty-two different fresh vegetable samples were purchased in March 2015 from different retail shops specializing in Asian food. The vegetables included basil leaves, bergamont leaves, coriander, curry leaves, eggplant and okra (marrow). Samples had been imported from Thailand, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and India. After an initial enrichment-step, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from two carbapenem-containing selective media (SUPERCARBA II and Brilliance…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Clonal dissemination of Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 in the upper midwestern United States.

Carbapenemase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CP-CRE, are an emerging threat to human and animal health, because they are resistant to many of the last-line antimicrobials available for disease treatment. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 recently was reported in the upper midwestern United States and implicated in a hospital outbreak in Fargo, North Dakota (L. M. Kiedrowski, D. M. Guerrero, F. Perez, R. A. Viau, L. J. Rojas, M. F. Mojica, S. D. Rudin, A. M. Hujer, S. H. Marshall, and R. A. Bonomo, Emerg Infect Dis 20:1583-1585, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140344). In early 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health began collecting and screening…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome analysis of Kingella kingae strain KWG1 reveals how a ß-Lactamase gene inserted in the chromosome of this species.

We describe the genome of a penicillinase-producing Kingella kingae strain (KWG1), the first to be isolated in continental Europe, whose blaTEM-1 gene was, for the first time in this species, found to be chromosomally inserted. The blaTEM gene is located in an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) inserted in Met-tRNA and comprising genes that encode resistance to sulfonamides, streptomycin, and tetracycline. This ICE is homologous to resistance-conferring plasmids of K. kingae and other Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome assembly of Klebsiella pneumoniae coproducing NDM-1 and OXA-232 carbapenemases using Single-Molecule, Real-Time Sequencing.

The whole-genome sequence of a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, PittNDM01, which coproduces NDM-1 and OXA-232 carbapenemases, was determined in this study. The use of single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing provided a closed genome in a single sequencing run. K. pneumoniae PittNDM01 has a single chromosome of 5,348,284 bp and four plasmids: pPKPN1 (283,371 bp), pPKPN2 (103,694 bp), pPKPN3 (70,814 bp), and pPKPN4 (6,141 bp). The contents of the chromosome were similar to that of the K. pneumoniae reference genome strain MGH 78578, with the exception of a large inversion spanning 23.3% of the chromosome. In contrast, three of the four plasmids…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Prevalence of mcr-1 in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae recovered from bloodstream infections in China: a multicentre longitudinal study.

Polymyxin antibiotics are used as last-resort therapies to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinant MCR-1 has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae in China. We did this study to investigate the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in clinical isolates from patients with bloodstream infections in China.Clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were collected from patients with bloodstream infections at 28 hospitals in China, then screened for colistin resistance by broth microdilution and for the presence of the mcr-1 gene by PCR amplification. We subjected mcr-1-positive isolates to genotyping, susceptibility testing, and clinical data analysis.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Structural alteration of OmpR as a source of ertapenem resistance in a CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli O25b:H4 sequence type 131 clinical isolate.

In this study, an ertapenem-nonsusceptible Escherichia coli isolate was investigated to determine the genetic basis for its carbapenem resistance phenotype. This clinical strain was recovered from a patient that received, 1 year previously, ertapenem to treat a cholangitis due to a carbapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolate. Whole-genome sequencing of these strains was performed using Illumina and single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies. It revealed that they belonged to the ST131 clonal group, had the predicted O25b:H4 serotype, and produced the CTX-M-15 and TEM-1 ß-lactamases. One nucleotide substitution was identified between these strains. It affected the ompR gene, which codes for a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Mistranslation can enhance fitness through purging of deleterious mutations.

Phenotypic mutations are amino acid changes caused by mistranslation. How phenotypic mutations affect the adaptive evolution of new protein functions is unknown. Here we evolve the antibiotic resistance protein TEM-1 towards resistance on the antibiotic cefotaxime in an Escherichia coli strain with a high mistranslation rate. TEM-1 populations evolved in such strains endow host cells with a general growth advantage, not only on cefotaxime but also on several other antibiotics that ancestral TEM-1 had been unable to deactivate. High-throughput sequencing of TEM-1 populations shows that this advantage is associated with a lower incidence of weakly deleterious genotypic mutations. Our observations…

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