July 19, 2019  |  

Resistance determinants and mobile genetic elements of an NDM-1-encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are emerging as a serious infectious disease challenge. These strains can accumulate many antibiotic resistance genes though horizontal transfer of genetic elements, those for ß-lactamases being of particular concern. Some ß-lactamases are active on a broad spectrum of ß-lactams including the last-resort carbapenems. The gene for the broad-spectrum and carbapenem-active metallo-ß-lactamase NDM-1 is rapidly spreading. We present the complete genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, the first U.S. isolate found to encode NDM-1, and describe its repertoire of antibiotic-resistance genes and mutations, including genes for eight ß-lactamases and 15 additional antibiotic-resistance enzymes. To elucidate the evolution of this rich repertoire, the mobile elements of the genome were characterized, including four plasmids with varying degrees of conservation and mosaicism and eleven chromosomal genomic islands. One island was identified by a novel phylogenomic approach, that further indicated the cps-lps polysaccharide synthesis locus, where operon translocation and fusion was noted. Unique plasmid segments and mosaic junctions were identified. Plasmid-borne blaCTX-M-15 was transposed recently to the chromosome by ISEcp1. None of the eleven full copies of IS26, the most frequent IS element in the genome, had the expected 8-bp direct repeat of the integration target sequence, suggesting that each copy underwent homologous recombination subsequent to its last transposition event. Comparative analysis likewise indicates IS26 as a frequent recombinational junction between plasmid ancestors, and also indicates a resolvase site. In one novel use of high-throughput sequencing, homologously recombinant subpopulations of the bacterial culture were detected. In a second novel use, circular transposition intermediates were detected for the novel insertion sequence ISKpn21 of the ISNCY family, suggesting that it uses the two-step transposition mechanism of IS3. Robust genome-based phylogeny showed that a unified Klebsiella cluster contains Enterobacter aerogenes and Raoultella, suggesting the latter genus should be abandoned.


July 19, 2019  |  

A comparative analysis of methylome profiles of Campylobacter jejuni sheep abortion isolate and gastroenteric strains using PacBio data.

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastrointestinal disease and small ruminant abortions in the United States. The recent emergence of a highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni subsp. jejuni sheep abortion clone (clone SA) in the United States, and that strain’s association with human disease, has resulted in a heightened awareness of the zoonotic potential of this organism. Pacific Biosciences’ Single Molecule, Real-Time sequencing technology was used to explore the variation in the genome-wide methylation patterns of the abortifacient clone SA (IA3902) and phenotypically distinct gastrointestinal-specific C. jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176). Several notable differences were discovered that distinguished the methylome of IA3902 from that of 11168 and 81-176: identification of motifs novel to IA3902, genome-specific hypo- and hypermethylated regions, strain level variability in genes methylated, and differences in the types of methylation motifs present in each strain. These observations suggest a possible role of methylation in the contrasting disease presentations of these three C. jejuni strains. In addition, the methylation profiles between IA3902 and a luxS mutant were explored to determine if variations in methylation patterns could be identified that might explain the role of LuxS-dependent methyl recycling in IA3902 abortifacient potential.


July 19, 2019  |  

Shifting fitness and epistatic landscapes reflect trade-offs along an evolutionary pathway.

Nature repurposes proteins via evolutionary processes. Such adaptation can come at the expense of the original protein’s function, which is a trade-off of adaptation. We sought to examine other potential adaptive trade-offs. We measured the effect on ampicillin resistance of ~12,500 unique single amino acid mutants of the TEM-1, TEM-17, TEM-19, and TEM-15 ß-lactamase alleles, which constitute an adaptive path in the evolution of cefotaxime resistance. These protein fitness landscapes were compared and used to calculate epistatic interactions between these mutations and the two mutations in the pathway (E104K and G238S). This series of protein fitness landscapes provides a systematic, quantitative description of pairwise/tertiary intragenic epistasis involving adaptive mutations. We find that the frequency of mutations exhibiting epistasis increases along the evolutionary pathway. Adaptation moves the protein to a region in the fitness landscape characterized by decreased mutational robustness and increased ruggedness, as measured by fitness effects of mutations and epistatic interactions for TEM-1’s original function. This movement to such a “fitness territory” has evolutionary consequences and is an important adaptive trade-off and cost of adaptation. Our systematic study provides detailed insight into the relationships between mutation, protein structure, protein stability, and epistasis and quantitatively depicts the different costs inherent in the evolution of new functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


July 19, 2019  |  

Mechanisms of evolution in high-consequence drug resistance plasmids.

The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content) of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. This analysis revealed that plasmid reorganizations occurring in the natural context of colonization of human hosts were overwhelmingly driven by genetic rearrangements carried out by replicative transposons working in concert with the process of homologous recombination. A more complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary forces driving rearrangements in resistance plasmids may lead to fundamentally new strategies to address the problem of antibiotic resistance.The spread of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a serious public health threat, as it can critically limit the types of drugs that can be used to treat infected patients. In particular, carbapenem-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are responsible for a significant and growing burden of morbidity and mortality. Here, we report on the mechanisms underlying the evolution of several plasmids carried by previously sequenced clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIH CC). Our ability to track genetic rearrangements that occurred within resistance plasmids was dependent on accurate annotation of the mobile genetic elements within the plasmids, which was greatly aided by access to long-read DNA sequencing data and knowledge of their mechanisms. Mobile genetic elements such as transposons and integrons have been strongly associated with the rapid spread of genes responsible for antibiotic resistance. Understanding the consequences of their actions allowed us to establish unambiguous evolutionary relationships between plasmids in the analysis set. Copyright © 2016 He et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

A novel Tn3-like composite transposon harboring blaVIM-1 in Klebsiella pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae isolated from river water.

We present a new plasmid (pOW16C2) with a novel Tn3-like transposon harboring blaVIM-1 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from river water in Switzerland.Complete nucleotide sequence of pOW16C2 was obtained using a Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing approach and coding sequences were predicted.The 59,228?bp sequence included a typical IncN-like backbone and a mosaic structure with blaVIM-1, aacA4, aphA15, aadA1, catB2, qnrS1, sul1, and dfrA14 conferring resistance to carbapenems and other ß-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, quinolones, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, respectively. Most of these resistance genes were inserted in a class 1 integron that was embedded in a novel Tn3-like composite transposon.IncN plasmids carrying carbapenemases are frequently isolated from K. pneumoniae strains in clinical settings. The dissemination of K. pneumoniae harboring blaVIM-1 in surface water is a cause for increased concern to public health.


July 7, 2019  |  

Analysis of a draft genome sequence of Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC 2395 producing bafilomycin antibiotics.

Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC 2395, producing bafilomycin antibiotics belonging to plecomacrolide group, was isolated from a soil sample at Mt. Jiri, Korea. The draft genome sequence contains 8.04 Mb with 73.6% G+C content and 7,810 open reading frames. All the genes for aerial mycelium and spore formations were confirmed in this draft genome. In phylogenetic analysis of MurE proteins (UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate:DAP ligase) in a conserved dcw (division of cell wall) locus, MurE proteins of Kitasatospora species were placed in a separate clade between MurEs of Streptomyces species incorporating LL-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) and MurEs of Saccharopolyspora erythraea as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis ligating meso-DAP. From this finding, it was assumed that Kitasatospora MurEs exhibit the substrate specificity for both LL-DAP and meso-DAP. The bafilomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was located in the left subtelomeric region. In 71.3 kb-long gene cluster, 17 genes probably involved in the biosynthesis of bafilomycin derivatives were deduced, including 5 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes comprised of 12 PKS modules.


July 7, 2019  |  

Surveillance of Klebsiella pneumoniae and antibiotic resistance a retrospective and comparative study through a period in Nepal

Among the Enterobacteriacea Klebsiella pneumoniae is for the most part obtained from clinical samples and most probable cause of a typical form of primary pneumonia. It can also responsible for a variety of extrapulmonary infections, counting enteritis and meningitis in infants, urinary tract infections in children and adults and septicaemia in all age groups. Like wise these pathogens are significant cause of hospital acquired infections right through the world. The remarkable increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria noticed in recent years represents a considerable challenge to public health microbiology worldwide. Klebsiellae have a tendency to possess antibiotic resistant plasmids; as a result, infections with multiple antibiotic-resistant strains can be likely. Only some degree of studies had been accounted in this regard from Nepal. The study was performed from January 1999 to March 2001. To come upon the existing dated antibiotic resistance pattern of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The study was carried out at TUTH laboratory with the objectives to ascertain the prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in conjunction with to calculate the significance antibiotic resistance correlation between various antibiotics. By which the later 15 years analysis of antibiotic resistance was evaluated with comparison to this study.In this scrutiny the result was established that the numbers of total isolates including both klebsiella pneumoniae and other Kebsiella species were 62 from urine samples, 78 from pus samples and 96 from sputum samples and 34 from other miscellaneous samples. In this study positive culture for Klebsiella pneumoniae was 32.83% for sputum samples, 23.62.% for urine samples and 24.57% for pus samples. Majority of the strains isolated were sensitive to ß- lactamases, Floroquinolones, Aminoglycosides, Tetracycline and Cotrimoxazole, combined antibiotics. The current review study from 1999 to 2014 discloses the frequency of infections due to klebsiella pneumoniae strains in the hospitalized patients and their tendency towards antibiotic resistance was on the increase. Large quantity of antibiotics exploited for human therapy has resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. This has become a vital clinical and infection control challenge, particularly in resource-limited settings with far above the ground a raising rate of antimicrobial resistance.


July 7, 2019  |  

Sequencing of plasmids pAMBL1 and pAMBL2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals a blaVIM-1 amplification causing high-level carbapenem resistance.

Carbapenemases are a major concern for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Although plasmids are responsible for the spread of resistance genes among these pathogens, there is limited information on the nature of the mobile genetic elements carrying carbapenemases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.We combined data from two different next-generation sequencing platforms, Illumina HiSeq2000 and PacBio RSII, to obtain the complete nucleotide sequences of two blaVIM-1-carrying plasmids (pAMBL1 and pAMBL2) isolated from P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.Plasmid pAMBL1 has 26?440 bp and carries a RepA_C family replication protein. pAMBL1 is similar to plasmids pNOR-2000 and pKLC102 from P. aeruginosa and pAX22 from Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which also carry VIM-type carbapenemases. pAMBL2 is a 24?133 bp plasmid with a replication protein that belongs to the Rep_3 family. It shows a high degree of homology with a fragment of the blaVIM-1-bearing plasmid pPC9 from Pseudomonas putida. Plasmid pAMBL2 carries three copies of the blaVIM-1 cassette in an In70 class 1 integron conferring, unlike pAMBL1, high-level resistance to carbapenems.We present two new plasmids coding for VIM-1 carbapenemase from P. aeruginosa and report that the presence of three copies of blaVIM-1 in pAMBL2 produces high-level resistance to carbapenems.© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


July 7, 2019  |  

First detection of Klebsiella variicola producing OXA-181 carbapenemase in fresh vegetable imported from Asia to Switzerland.

The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health services. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh vegetables and spices imported from Asia to Switzerland.Twenty-two different fresh vegetable samples were purchased in March 2015 from different retail shops specializing in Asian food. The vegetables included basil leaves, bergamont leaves, coriander, curry leaves, eggplant and okra (marrow). Samples had been imported from Thailand, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and India. After an initial enrichment-step, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from two carbapenem-containing selective media (SUPERCARBA II and Brilliance CRE Agar). Isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of bla KPC, bla NDM, bla OXA-48-like and bla VIM. An OXA-181-producing Klebsiella variicola was isolated in a coriander sample with origin Thailand/Vietnam. The bla OXA-181 gene was encoded in a 14’027 bp region flanked by two IS26-like elements on a 51-kb IncX3-type plasmid.The results of this study suggest that the international production and trade of fresh vegetables constitute a possible route for the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The presence of carbapenemase-producing organisms in the food supply is alarming and an important food safety issue.


July 7, 2019  |  

Clonal dissemination of Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 in the upper midwestern United States.

Carbapenemase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CP-CRE, are an emerging threat to human and animal health, because they are resistant to many of the last-line antimicrobials available for disease treatment. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 recently was reported in the upper midwestern United States and implicated in a hospital outbreak in Fargo, North Dakota (L. M. Kiedrowski, D. M. Guerrero, F. Perez, R. A. Viau, L. J. Rojas, M. F. Mojica, S. D. Rudin, A. M. Hujer, S. H. Marshall, and R. A. Bonomo, Emerg Infect Dis 20:1583-1585, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140344). In early 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health began collecting and screening CP-CRE from patients throughout Minnesota. Here, we analyzed a retrospective group of CP-E. cloacae isolates (n = 34) collected between 2009 and 2013. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis revealed that 32 of the strains were clonal, belonging to the ST171 clonal complex and differing collectively by 211 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and it revealed a dynamic clone under positive selection. The phylogeography of these strains suggests that this clone existed in eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota prior to 2009 and subsequently was identified in the Minneapolis and St. Paul metropolitan area. All strains harbored identical IncFIA-like plasmids conferring a CP-CRE phenotype and an additional IncX3 plasmid. In a single patient with multiple isolates submitted over several months, we found evidence that these plasmids had transferred from the E. cloacae clone to an Escherichia coli ST131 bacterium, rendering it as a CP-CRE. The spread of this clone throughout the upper midwestern United States is unprecedented for E. cloacae and highlights the importance of continued surveillance to identify such threats to human health. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome analysis of Kingella kingae strain KWG1 reveals how a ß-Lactamase gene inserted in the chromosome of this species.

We describe the genome of a penicillinase-producing Kingella kingae strain (KWG1), the first to be isolated in continental Europe, whose blaTEM-1 gene was, for the first time in this species, found to be chromosomally inserted. The blaTEM gene is located in an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) inserted in Met-tRNA and comprising genes that encode resistance to sulfonamides, streptomycin, and tetracycline. This ICE is homologous to resistance-conferring plasmids of K. kingae and other Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Whole-genome assembly of Klebsiella pneumoniae coproducing NDM-1 and OXA-232 carbapenemases using Single-Molecule, Real-Time Sequencing.

The whole-genome sequence of a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, PittNDM01, which coproduces NDM-1 and OXA-232 carbapenemases, was determined in this study. The use of single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing provided a closed genome in a single sequencing run. K. pneumoniae PittNDM01 has a single chromosome of 5,348,284 bp and four plasmids: pPKPN1 (283,371 bp), pPKPN2 (103,694 bp), pPKPN3 (70,814 bp), and pPKPN4 (6,141 bp). The contents of the chromosome were similar to that of the K. pneumoniae reference genome strain MGH 78578, with the exception of a large inversion spanning 23.3% of the chromosome. In contrast, three of the four plasmids are unique. The plasmid pPKPN1, an IncHI1B-like plasmid, carries the blaNDM-1, armA, and qnrB1 genes, along with tellurium and mercury resistance operons. blaNDM-1 is carried on a unique structure in which Tn125 is further bracketed by IS26 downstream of a class 1 integron. The IncFIA-like plasmid pPKPN3 also carries an array of resistance elements, including blaCTX-M-15 and a mercury resistance operon. The ColE-type plasmid pPKPN4 carrying blaOXA-232 is identical to a plasmid previously reported from France. SMRT sequencing was useful in resolving the complex bacterial genomic structures in the de novo assemblies. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Prevalence of mcr-1 in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae recovered from bloodstream infections in China: a multicentre longitudinal study.

Polymyxin antibiotics are used as last-resort therapies to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinant MCR-1 has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae in China. We did this study to investigate the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene in clinical isolates from patients with bloodstream infections in China.Clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were collected from patients with bloodstream infections at 28 hospitals in China, then screened for colistin resistance by broth microdilution and for the presence of the mcr-1 gene by PCR amplification. We subjected mcr-1-positive isolates to genotyping, susceptibility testing, and clinical data analysis. We established the genetic location of mcr-1 with Southern blot hybridisation, and we analysed plasmids containing mcr-1 with filter mating, electroporation, and DNA sequencing.2066 isolates, consisting of 1495 E coli isolates and 571 K pneumoniae isolates were collected. Of the 1495 E coli isolates, 20 (1%) were mcr-1-positive, whereas we detected only one (<1%) mcr-1-positive isolate among the 571 K pneumoniae isolates. All mcr-1-positive E coli and K pneumoniae isolates were resistant to colistin, with minimum inhibitory concentrations values in the range of 4-32 mg/L, except for one E coli isolate that had a minimum inhibitory concentration less than or equal to 0·06 mg/L. All 21 mcr-1-positive isolates were susceptible to tigecycline and 20 isolates (95%) were susceptible to the carbapenem and ß-lactamase inhibitor combination piperacillin and tazobactam. One mcr-1-positive E coli isolate also produced NDM-5, which confers resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The 21 mcr-1-positive isolates were clonally diverse and carried mcr-1 on two types of plasmids, a 33 kb IncX4 plasmid and a 61 kb Inc12 plasmid. The 30 day mortality of the patients with bloodstream infections caused by mcr-1-positive isolates was zero.mcr-1-positive isolates from bloodstream infections were rare, sporadic, and remained susceptible to many antimicrobial agents. E coli, rather than K pneumoniae, was the main host of the mcr-1 gene. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical impact of this novel resistance gene.National Natural Science Foundation of China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Structural alteration of OmpR as a source of ertapenem resistance in a CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli O25b:H4 sequence type 131 clinical isolate.

In this study, an ertapenem-nonsusceptible Escherichia coli isolate was investigated to determine the genetic basis for its carbapenem resistance phenotype. This clinical strain was recovered from a patient that received, 1 year previously, ertapenem to treat a cholangitis due to a carbapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolate. Whole-genome sequencing of these strains was performed using Illumina and single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies. It revealed that they belonged to the ST131 clonal group, had the predicted O25b:H4 serotype, and produced the CTX-M-15 and TEM-1 ß-lactamases. One nucleotide substitution was identified between these strains. It affected the ompR gene, which codes for a regulatory protein involved in the control of OmpC/OmpF porin expression, creating a Gly-63-Val substitution. The role of OmpR alteration was confirmed by a complementation experiment that fully restored the susceptibility to ertapenem of the clinical isolate. A modeling study showed that the Gly-63-Val change displaced the histidine-kinase phosphorylation site. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the ertapenem-nonsusceptible E. coli strain had a decreased expression of OmpC/OmpF porins. No significant defect in the growth rate or in the resistance to Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba phagocytosis was found in the ertapenem-nonsusceptible E. coli isolate compared to its susceptible parental strain. Our report demonstrates for the first time that ertapenem resistance may emerge clinically from ESBL-producing E. coli due to mutations that modulate the OmpR activity. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.


July 7, 2019  |  

Mistranslation can enhance fitness through purging of deleterious mutations.

Phenotypic mutations are amino acid changes caused by mistranslation. How phenotypic mutations affect the adaptive evolution of new protein functions is unknown. Here we evolve the antibiotic resistance protein TEM-1 towards resistance on the antibiotic cefotaxime in an Escherichia coli strain with a high mistranslation rate. TEM-1 populations evolved in such strains endow host cells with a general growth advantage, not only on cefotaxime but also on several other antibiotics that ancestral TEM-1 had been unable to deactivate. High-throughput sequencing of TEM-1 populations shows that this advantage is associated with a lower incidence of weakly deleterious genotypic mutations. Our observations show that mistranslation is not just a source of noise that delays adaptive evolution. It could even facilitate adaptive evolution by exacerbating the effects of deleterious mutations and leading to their more efficient purging. The ubiquity of mistranslation and its effects render mistranslation an important factor in adaptive protein evolution.


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