April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence provides insights into the quorum sensing-related spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica 128 isolated from spoiled shrimp.

Shewanella baltica 128 is a specific spoilage organism (SSO) isolated from the refrigerated shrimp that results in shrimp spoilage. This study reported the complete genome sequencing of this strain, with the primary annotations associated with amino acid transport and metabolism (8.66%), indicating that S. baltica 128 has good potential for degrading proteins. In vitro experiments revealed Shewanella baltica 128 could adapt to the stress conditions by regulating its growth and biofilm formation. Genes that related to the spoilage-related metabolic pathways, including trimethylamine metabolism (torT), sulfur metabolism (cysM), putrescine metabolism (speC), biofilm formation (rpoS) and serine protease production (degS), were identified. Genes (LuxS, pfs, LuxR and qseC) that related to the specific QS system were also identified. Complete genome sequence of S. baltica 128 provide insights into the QS-related spoilage potential, which might provide novel information for the development of new approaches for spoilage detection and prevention based on QS target.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.


April 21, 2020  |  

Bioinformatic analysis of the complete genome sequence of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense BZA12 and candidate effector screening

AbstractPectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb) is a gram-negative, plant pathogenic bacterium of the soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) family. We present the complete genome sequence of Pcb strain BZA12, which reveals that Pcb strain BZA12 carries a single 4,924,809 bp chromosome with 51.97% GC content and comprises 4508 predicted protein-coding genes.Geneannotationofthese genes utilizedGO, KEGG,and COG databases.Incomparison withthree closely related soft-rot pathogens, strain BZA12 has 3797 gene families, among which 3107 gene families are identified as orthologous with those of both P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum PCC21 and P. carotovorum subsp. odoriferum BCS7, as well as 36 putative Unique Gene Families. We selected five putative effectors from the BZA12 genome and transiently expressed them in Nicotiana benthamiana. Candidate effector A12GL002483 was localized in the cell nucleus and induced cell death. This study provides a foundation for a better understanding of the genomic structure and function of Pcb, particularly in the discovery of potential pathogenic factors and for the development of more effective strategies against this pathogen.


September 22, 2019  |  

Molecular characterization of NBS-LRR genes in the soybean Rsv3 locus reveals several divergent alleles that likely confer resistance to the soybean mosaic virus.

The divergence patterns of NBS – LRR genes in soybean Rsv3 locus were deciphered and several divergent alleles ( NBS_C, NBS_D and Columbia NBS_E ) were identified as the likely functional candidates of Rsv3. The soybean Rsv3 locus, which confers resistance to the soybean mosaic virus (SMV), has been previously mapped to a region containing five nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR) genes (referred to as nbs_A-E) in Williams 82. In resistant cultivars, however, the number of NBS-LRR genes in this region and their divergence from susceptible alleles remain unclear. In the present study, we constructed and screened a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for an Rsv3-possessing cultivar, Zaoshu 18. Sequencing two positive BAC inserts on the Rsv3 locus revealed that Zaoshu 18 possesses the same gene content and order as Williams 82, but two of the NBS-LRR genes, NBS_C and NBS_D, exhibit distinct features that were not observed in the Williams 82 alleles. Obtaining these NBS-LRR genes from eight additional cultivars demonstrated that the NBS_A-D genes diverged into two different alleles: the nbs_A-D alleles were associated with the rsv3-type cultivars, whereas the NBS_A-D alleles were associated with the Rsv3-possessing cultivars. For the NBS_E gene, the cultivar Columbia possesses an allele (NBS_E) that differed from that in Zaoshu 18 and rsv3-type cultivars (nbs_E). Exchanged fragments were further detected on alleles of the NBS_C-E genes, suggesting that recombination is a major force responsible for allele divergence. Also, the LRR domains of the NBS_C-E genes exhibited extremely strong signals of positive selection. Overall, the divergence patterns of the NBS-LRR genes in Rsv3 locus elucidated by this study indicate that not only NBS_C but also NBS_D and Columbia NBS_E are likely functional alleles that confer resistance to SMV.


September 22, 2019  |  

Knockout of rapC improves the bacillomycin D yield based on de novo genome sequencing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens fmbJ.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, a Gram-positive and soil-dwelling bacterium, could produce secondary metabolites that suppress plant pathogens. In this study, we provided the whole genome sequence results of B. amyloliquefaciens fmbJ, which had one circular chromosome of 4?193?344 bp with 4249 genes, 87 tRNA genes, and 27 rRNA genes. In addition, fmbJ was found to contain several gene clusters of antimicrobial lipopeptides (bacillomycin D, surfactin, and fengycin), and bacillomycin D homologues were further comprehensively identified. To clarify the influence of rapC regulating the synthesis of lipopeptide on the yield of bacillomycin D, rapC gene in fmbJ was successfully deleted by the marker-free method. Finally, it was found that the deletion of rapC gene in fmbJ significantly improved bacillomycin D production from 240.7 ± 18.9 to 360.8 ± 30.7 mg/L, attributed to the increased the expression of bacillomycin D synthesis-related genes through enhancing the transcriptional level of comA, comP, and phrC. These results showed that the production of bacillomycin D in B. amyloliquefaciens fmbJ might be regulated by the RapC-PhrC system. The findings are expected to advance further agricultural application of Bacillus spp. as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds.


September 22, 2019  |  

Co-culture of soil biofilm isolates enables the discovery of novel antibiotics

Bacterial natural products (NPs) are considered to be a promising source of drug discovery. However, the biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs) of NP are not often expressed, making it difficult to identify them. Recently, the study of biofilm community showed bacteria may gain competitive advantages by the secretion of antibiotics, implying a possible way to screen antibiotic by evaluating the social behavior of bacteria. In this study, we have described an efficient workflow for novel antibiotic discovery by employing the bacterial social interaction strategy with biofilm cultivation, co-culture, transcriptomic and genomic methods. We showed that a biofilm dominant species, i.e. Pseudomonas sp. G7, which was isolated from cultivated soil biofilm community, was highly competitive in four-species biofilm communities, as the synergistic combinations preferred to exclude this strain while the antagonistic combinations did not. Through the analysis of transcriptomic changes in four-species co-culture and the complete genome of Pseudomonas sp. G7, we finally discovered two novel non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetic (NRPS) BGCs, whose products were predicted to have seven and six amino acid components, respectively. Furthermore, we provide evidence showing that only when Pseudomonas sp. G7 was co-cultivated with at least two or three other bacterial species can these BGC genes be induced, suggesting that the co-culture of the soil biofilm isolates is critical to the discovery of novel antibiotics. As a conclusion, we set a model of applying microbial interaction to the discovery of new antibiotics.


September 22, 2019  |  

The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 regulates the level of indole-3-acetic acid synthesized from indole-3-acetonitrile.

Variovorax is a metabolically diverse genus of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that engages in mutually beneficial interactions between plants and microbes. Unlike most PGPR, Variovorax cannot synthesize the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via tryptophan. However, we found that V. boronicumulans strain CGMCC 4969 could produce IAA using indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) as the precursor. Thus, in the present study, the IAA synthesis mechanism of V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 was investigated. V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 metabolized IAN to IAA through both a nitrilase-dependent pathway and a nitrile hydratase (NHase) and amidase-dependent pathway. Cobalt enhanced the metabolic flux via the NHase/amidase, by which IAN was rapidly converted to indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and in turn to IAA. IAN stimulated the metabolic flux via the nitrilase, by which IAN was rapidly converted to IAA. Subsequently, the IAA was degraded. V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 could use IAN as the sole carbon and nitrogen source for growth. Genome sequencing confirmed the IAA synthesis pathways. Gene cloning and overexpression in Escherichia coli indicated that NitA has the nitrilase activity, and IamA has the amidase activity to respectively transform IAN and IAM to IAA. Interestingly, NitA showed a close genetic relationship with the nitrilase of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the NHase/amidase system is constitutively expressed, whereas the nitrilase is inducible. The present study helps our understanding of the versatile functions of Variovorax nitrile-converting enzymes that mediate IAA synthesis and the interactions between plants and these bacteria.IMPORTANCE We demonstrated that Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 has two enzymatic systems-nitrilase and nitrile hydratase/amidase-that convert indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) to the important plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The two IAA synthesis systems have very different regulatory mechanisms, affecting the IAA synthesis rate and duration. The nitrilase was induced by IAN, which was rapidly converted to IAA; subsequently IAA was rapidly consumed for cell growth. The NHase and amidase system was constitutively expressed and slowly but continuously synthesized IAA. In addition to synthesizing IAA from IAN, CGMCC 4969 has a rapid IAA degradation system, which would be helpful for a host plant to eliminate redundant IAA. This study indicates that the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 has the potential to be used by host plants to regulate the IAA level. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.


September 22, 2019  |  

Analysis of the Gli-D2 locus identifies a genetic target for simultaneously improving the breadmaking and health-related traits of common wheat.

Gliadins are a major component of wheat seed proteins. However, the complex homoeologous Gli-2 loci (Gli-A2, -B2 and -D2) that encode the a-gliadins in commercial wheat are still poorly understood. Here we analyzed the Gli-D2 locus of Xiaoyan 81 (Xy81), a winter wheat cultivar. A total of 421.091 kb of the Gli-D2 sequence was assembled from sequencing multiple bacterial artificial clones, and 10 a-gliadin genes were annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that Xy81 carried only eight of the a-gliadin genes of the D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, with two of them each experiencing a tandem duplication. A mutant line lacking Gli-D2 (DLGliD2) consistently exhibited better breadmaking quality and dough functionalities than its progenitor Xy81, but without penalties in other agronomic traits. It also had an elevated lysine content in the grains. Transcriptome analysis verified the lack of Gli-D2 a-gliadin gene expression in DLGliD2. Furthermore, the transcript and protein levels of protein disulfide isomerase were both upregulated in DLGliD2 grains. Consistent with this finding, DLGliD2 had increased disulfide content in the flour. Our work sheds light on the structure and function of Gli-D2 in commercial wheat, and suggests that the removal of Gli-D2 and the gliadins specified by it is likely to be useful for simultaneously enhancing the end-use and health-related traits of common wheat. Because gliadins and homologous proteins are widely present in grass species, the strategy and information reported here may be broadly useful for improving the quality traits of diverse cereal crops.© 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis YC-10, a novel active strain against plant-parasitic nematodes.

Bacillus thuringiensis is an important microbial biopesticide for controlling agricultural pests by the production of toxic parasporal crystals proteins.Here,we report the finished annotated genome sequence of B. thuringiensis YC-10,which is highly toxic to nematodes.The complete genome sequence consists of a circular chromosome and nine circular plasmids,which the biggest plasmid harbors six parasporal crystals proteins genes consisting of cry1Aa, cry1Ac, cry1Ia, cry2Aa, cry2Ab and cryB1. The crystals proteins of Cry1Ia and Cry1Aa have high nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the dairy isolate Lactobacillus acidipiscis ACA-DC 1533.

Lactobacillus acidipiscis is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium belonging to the Lactobacillus salivarius clade. Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of L. acidipiscis isolated from traditional Greek Kopanisti cheese. Strain ACA-DC 1533 may play a key role in the strong organoleptic characteristics of Kopanisti cheese. Copyright © 2017 Kazou et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis orientalis CPCC200066, the producer of norvancomycin.

Amycolatopsis orientalis CPCC200066 is an actinomycete exploited commercially in China for the production of norvancomycin, an important glycopeptide antibiotic structurally close to the well-known vancomycin. The availability of the complete genome sequence of CPCC200066 would greatly strengthen our understanding of the regulation pattern of norvancomycin biosynthesis and ultimately improve its production, as well as potentiate discoveries of novel bioactive compounds. Here we report the complete genome sequence of A. orientalis CPCC200066, a circular chromosome consisting of 9,490,992bp. Forty putative secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, including norvancomycin, were predicted, covering 20.3% of the whole genome. To facilitate genetic manipulation of this strain, an efficient transformation system was established by constructing a novel integrative vector pIMBT1, which could be transferred into CPCC200066 by electroporation with high efficiency. FBT1 attB sites were also identified in other known Amycolatopsis genomes, indicating pIMBT1’s prospect to be a novel vector for genus Amycolatopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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