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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Acquired N-Linked Glycosylation Motifs in B-Cell Receptors of Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma and the Normal B-Cell Repertoire.

Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) is a rare mature B-cell lymphoma with an unknown etiology. PCFCL resembles follicular lymphoma (FL) by cytomorphologic and microarchitectural criteria. FL B cells are selected for N-linked glycosylation motifs in their B-cell receptors (BCRs) that are acquired during continuous somatic hypermutation. The stimulation of mannosylated BCR by lectins on the tumor microenvironment is therefore a candidate driver in FL pathogenesis. We investigated whether the same mechanism could play a role in PCFCL pathogenesis. Full-length functional variable, diversity, and joining gene sequences of 18 PCFCL and 8 primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type were…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Allelic specificity of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) translocation in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) unveiled by long-read sequencing

Oncogenic fusion of IGH-DUX4 has recently been reported as a hallmark that defines a B-ALL subtype present in up to 7% of adolescents and young adults B-ALL. The translocation of DUX4 into IGH results in aberrant activation of DUX4 by hijacking the intronic IGH enhancer (Eµ). How IGH-DUX4 translocation interplays with IGH allelic exclusion was never been explored. We investigated this in Nalm6 B-ALL cell line, using long-read (PacBio Iso-Seq method and 10X Chromium WGS), short-read (Illumina total stranded RNA and WGS), epigenome (H3K27ac ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq) and 3-D genome (Hi-C, H3K27ac HiChIP, Capture-C).

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Next-generation approaches to advancing eco-immunogenomic research in critically endangered primates.

High-throughput sequencing platforms are generating massive amounts of genomic data from nonmodel species, and these data sets are valuable resources that can be mined to advance a number of research areas. An example is the growing amount of transcriptome data that allow for examination of gene expression in nonmodel species. Here, we show how publicly available transcriptome data from nonmodel primates can be used to design novel research focused on immunogenomics. We mined transcriptome data from the world’s most endangered group of primates, the lemurs of Madagascar, for sequences corresponding to immunoglobulins. Our results confirmed homology between strepsirrhine and haplorrhine…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Novel exons and splice variants in the human antibody heavy chain identified by single cell and single molecule sequencing.

Antibody heavy chains contain a variable and a constant region. The constant region of the antibody heavy chain is encoded by multiple groups of exons which define the isotype and therefore many functional characteristics of the antibody. We performed both single B cell RNAseq and long read single molecule sequencing of antibody heavy chain transcripts and were able to identify novel exons for IGHA1 and IGHA2 as well as novel isoforms for IGHM antibody heavy chain.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Mutational landscape of antibody variable domains reveals a switch modulating the interdomain conformational dynamics and antigen binding.

Somatic mutations within the antibody variable domains are critical to the immense capacity of the immune repertoire. Here, via a deep mutational scan, we dissect how mutations at all positions of the variable domains of a high-affinity anti-VEGF antibody G6.31 impact its antigen-binding function. The resulting mutational landscape demonstrates that large portions of antibody variable domain positions are open to mutation, and that beneficial mutations can be found throughout the variable domains. We determine the role of one antigen-distal light chain position 83, demonstrating that mutation at this site optimizes both antigen affinity and thermostability by modulating the interdomain conformational…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptome sequencing reveals thousands of novel long non-coding RNAs in B cell lymphoma.

Gene profiling of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has revealed broad gene expression deregulation compared to normal B cells. While many studies have interrogated well known and annotated genes in DLBCL, none have yet performed a systematic analysis to uncover novel unannotated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in DLBCL. In this study we sought to uncover these lncRNAs by examining RNA-seq data from primary DLBCL tumors and performed supporting analysis to identify potential role of these lncRNAs in DLBCL.We performed a systematic analysis of novel lncRNAs from the poly-adenylated transcriptome of 116 primary DLBCL samples. RNA-seq data were processed using…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The antibody loci of the domestic goat (Capra hircus).

The domestic goat (Capra hircus) is an important ruminant species both as a source of antibody-based reagents for research and biomedical applications and as an economically important animal for agriculture, particularly for developing nations that maintain most of the global goat population. Characterization of the loci encoding the goat immune repertoire would be highly beneficial for both vaccine and immune reagent development. However, in goat and other species whose reference genomes were generated using short-read sequencing technologies, the immune loci are poorly assembled as a result of their repetitive nature. Our recent construction of a long-read goat genome assembly (ARS1)…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Germinal center centroblasts transition to a centrocyte phenotype according to a timed program and depend on the dark zone for effective selection.

Germinal center (GC) B cells cycle between the dark zone (DZ) and light zone (LZ) during antibody affinity maturation. Whether this movement is necessary for GC function has not been tested. Here we show that CXCR4-deficient GC B cells, which are restricted to the LZ, are gradually outcompeted by WT cells indicating an essential role for DZ access. Remarkably, the transition between DZ centroblast and LZ centrocyte phenotypes occurred independently of positioning. However, CXCR4-deficient cells carried fewer mutations and were overrepresented in the CD73(+) memory compartment. These findings are consistent with a model where GC B cells change from DZ to…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

SMRT Sequencing for parallel analysis of multiple targets and accurate SNP phasing.

Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing generates much longer reads than other widely used next-generation (next-gen) sequencing methods, but its application to whole genome/exome analysis has been limited. Here, we describe the use of SMRT sequencing coupled with barcoding to simultaneously analyze one or a small number of genomic targets derived from multiple sources. In the budding yeast system, SMRT sequencing was used to analyze strand-exchange intermediates generated during mitotic recombination and to analyze genetic changes in a forward mutation assay. The general barcoding-SMRT approach was then extended to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma primary tumors and cell lines, where detected changes agreed…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated cloning and functional characterization of gastric cancer-derived Epstein-Barr virus strains.

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically linked to approximately 10% of gastric cancers, in which viral genomes are maintained as multicopy episomes. EBV-positive gastric cancer cells are incompetent for progeny virus production, making viral DNA cloning extremely difficult. Here we describe a highly efficient strategy for obtaining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of EBV episomes by utilizing a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated strand break of the viral genome and subsequent homology-directed repair. EBV strains maintained in two gastric cancer cell lines (SNU719 and YCCEL1) were cloned, and their complete viral genome sequences were determined. Infectious viruses of gastric cancer cell-derived EBVs were reconstituted,…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

ARTISAN PCR: rapid identification of full-length immunoglobulin rearrangements without primer binding bias.

B cells recognize specific antigens by their membrane-bound B-cell receptor (BCR). Functional BCR genes are assembled in pre-B cells by recombination of the variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) genes [V(D)J recombination]. When B cells participate in germinal centre reactions, non-templated point mutations are introduced into BCR genes by somatic hypermutation (SHM) (Rajewsky, 1996). V(D)J recombination and SHM create virtually unlimited BCR repertoires.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

IG and TR single chain fragment variable (scFv) sequence analysis: a new advanced functionality of IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/HighV-QUEST.

IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® ( http://www.imgt.org ), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier University) to manage the huge and complex diversity of the antigen receptors, and is at the origin of immunoinformatics, a science at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies and T cell receptors (TR) are managed and described in the IMGT® databases and tools at the level of receptor, chain and domain. The analysis of the IG and TR variable (V) domain rearranged nucleotide sequences is performed by IMGT/V-QUEST (online since 1997, 50 sequences per batch) and, for…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

In-depth determination and analysis of the human paired heavy- and light-chain antibody repertoire.

High-throughput immune repertoire sequencing has emerged as a critical step in the understanding of adaptive responses following infection or vaccination or in autoimmunity. However, determination of native antibody variable heavy-light pairs (VH-VL pairs) remains a major challenge, and no technologies exist to adequately interrogate the >1 × 10(6) B cells in typical specimens. We developed a low-cost, single-cell, emulsion-based technology for sequencing antibody VH-VL repertoires from >2 × 10(6) B cells per experiment with demonstrated pairing precision >97%. A simple flow-focusing apparatus was used to sequester single B cells into emulsion droplets containing lysis buffer and magnetic beads for mRNA…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Proteomic analysis of Pemphigus autoantibodies indicates a larger, more diverse, and more dynamic repertoire than determined by B cell genetics.

In autoantibody-mediated diseases such as pemphigus, serum antibodies lead to disease. Genetic analysis of B cells has allowed characterization of antibody repertoires in such diseases but would be complemented by proteomic analysis of serum autoantibodies. Here, we show using proteomic analysis that the serum autoantibody repertoire in pemphigus is much more polyclonal than that found by genetic studies of B cells. In addition, many B cells encode pemphigus autoantibodies that are not secreted into the serum. Heavy chain variable gene usage of serum autoantibodies is not shared among patients, implying targeting of the coded proteins will not be a useful…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Antibodyomics: bioinformatics technologies for understanding B-cell immunity to HIV-1.

Numerous antibodies have been identified from HIV-1-infected donors that neutralize diverse strains of HIV-1. These antibodies may provide the basis for a B cell-mediated HIV-1 vaccine. However, it has been unclear how to elicit similar antibodies by vaccination. To address this issue, we have undertaken an informatics-based approach to understand the genetic and immunologic processes controlling the development of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies. As DNA sequencing comprises the fastest growing database of biological information, we focused on incorporating next-generation sequencing of B-cell transcripts to determine the origin, maturation pathway, and prevalence of broadly neutralizing antibody lineages (Antibodyomics1, 2, 4, and 6). We…

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