Fully phased allele-level sequencing of highly polymorphic HLA genes is greatly facilitated by SMRT Sequencing technology. In the present work, we have evaluated multiple DNA barcoding strategies for multiplexing several loci from multiple individuals, using three different tagging methods. Specifically MHC class I genes HLA-A, -B, and –C were indexed via DNA Barcodes by either tailed primers or barcoded SMRTbell adapters. Eight different 16-bp barcode sequences were used in symmetric & asymmetric pairing. Eight DNA barcoded adapters in symmetric pairing were independently ligated to a pool of HLA-A, -B and –C for eight different individuals, one at a time and pooled for sequencing on a single SMRT Cell. Amplicons generated from barcoded primers were pooled upfront for library generation. Eight symmetric barcoded primers were generated for HLA class I genes. These primers facilitated multiplexing of 8 samples and also allowed generation of unique asymmetric pairings for simultaneous amplification from 28 reference genomic DNA samples. The data generated from all 3 methods was analyzed using LAA protocol in SMRT analysis V2.3. Consensus sequences generated were typed using GenDx NGS engine HLA-typing software.
Whole gene sequencing of KIR-3DL1 with SMRT Sequencing and the distribution of allelic variants in different ethnic groups
The killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene family are involved in immune modulation during viral infection, autoimmune disease and in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Most KIR gene diversity studies and their impact on the transplant outcome is performed by gene absence/presence assays. However, it is well known that KIR gene allelic variations have biological significance. Allele level typing of KIR genes has been very challenging until recently due to the homologous nature of those genes and very long intronic sequences. SMRT (Single Molecule Real-Time) Sequencing generates average long reads of 10 to 15 kb and allows us to obtain in-phase long sequence reads. We have developed a PCR assay for SMRT Sequencing on the PacBio RS II platform in our lab for 3DL1 whole gene sequencing. This approach allows us to obtain allele level typing for 3DL1 genes and could serve as a model to type other KIR genes at allelic level.
Collection of major HLA allele sequences in Japanese population toward the precise NGS based HLA DNA typing at the field 4 level
We previously reported on the use of the Ion PGM next generation sequencing (NGS) platform to genotype HLA class I and class II genes by a super-high resolution, single-molecule, sequence-based typing (SS-SBT) method (Shiina et al. 2012). However, HLA alleles could not be assigned at the field 4 level at some HLA loci such as DQA1, DPA1 and DPB1 because the SNP and indel densities were too low to identify and separate both of the phases. In this regard, we have now added the single molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencer PacBio RS II method to our analysis in order to test whether it might determine the HLA allele sequences in some of the loci with which we previously had difficulties. In this study, we report on sequence-based genotyping of entire HLA gene sequences from the promoter-enhancer region to 3’UTR of the major HLA loci (A, B, C, DRB1, DRB345, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1 and DPB1) using 46 Japanese reference subjects who represented a distribution of more than 99.5% of the HLA alleles at each of the HLA loci and the PacBio RS II and Ion PGM systems.
Analysis of 37,000 Caucasian samples reveals tight linkage between SNP RS9277534 and high resolution typing of HLA-DPB1
HLA-DPB1 mismatching between patients and unrelated donors is known to increase the risk of acute graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. If only HLA-DPB1 mismatched donors are available, the genotype defined by the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs9277534 can be used to select mismatched donors that are well-tolerated. However, since rs9277534 resides within the 3’ untranslated region (UTR), it usually is not analyzed during DPB1 routine typing.