July 7, 2019  |  

Analysis of complete genome sequence and major surface antigens of Neorickettsia helminthoeca, causative agent of salmon poisoning disease.

Neorickettsia helminthoeca, a type species of the genus Neorickettsia, is an endosymbiont of digenetic trematodes of veterinary importance. Upon ingestion of salmonid fish parasitized with infected trematodes, canids develop salmon poisoning disease (SPD), an acute febrile illness that is particularly severe and often fatal in dogs without adequate treatment. We determined and analysed the complete genome sequence of N. helminthoeca: a single small circular chromosome of 884 232 bp encoding 774 potential proteins. N. helminthoeca is unable to synthesize lipopolysaccharides and most amino acids, but is capable of synthesizing vitamins, cofactors, nucleotides and bacterioferritin. N. helminthoeca is, however, distinct from majority of the family Anaplasmataceae to which it belongs, as it encodes nearly all enzymes required for peptidoglycan biosynthesis, suggesting its structural hardiness and inflammatory potential. Using sera from dogs that were experimentally infected by feeding with parasitized fish or naturally infected in southern California, Western blot analysis revealed that among five predicted N. helminthoeca outer membrane proteins, P51 and strain-variable surface antigen were uniformly recognized. Our finding will help understanding pathogenesis, prevalence of N. helminthoeca infection among trematodes, canids and potentially other animals in nature to develop effective SPD diagnostic and preventive measures. Recent progresses in large-scale genome sequencing have been uncovering broad distribution of Neorickettsia spp., the comparative genomics will facilitate understanding of biology and the natural history of these elusive environmental bacteria.© 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.


July 7, 2019  |  

The complete genome sequence of Exiguobacterium arabatum W-01 reveals potential probiotic functions.

Shrimp is extensively cultured worldwide. Shrimp farming is suffering from a variety of diseases. Probiotics are considered to be one of the effective methods to prevent and cure shrimp diseases. Exiguobacterium arabatum W-01, a gram-positive and orange-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from the intestine of a healthy Penaeus vannamei specimen. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a genome of 2,914,854 bp, with 48.02% GC content. In total, 3,083 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, with an average length of 843.98 bp and a mean GC content of 48.11%, accounting for 89.27% of the genome. Among these ORFs, 2,884 (93.5%) genes were classified into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) families comprising 21 functional categories, and 1,650 ORFs were classified into 83 functional Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. A total of 27 rRNA operons and 68 tRNAs were identified, with all 20 amino acids represented. In addition, 91 genomic islands, 68 potential prophages, and 33 tandem repeats, but no clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), were found. No resistance genes and only one virulence gene were identified. Among the 150 secreted proteins of E. arabatum W-01, a variety of transport system substrate-binding proteins, enzymes, and biosynthetic proteins, which play important roles in the uptake and metabolism of nutrients, were found. Two adherence-related protein genes and 31 flagellum-related protein genes were also identified. Taken together, these results indicate potential probiotic functions for E. arabatum W-01.© 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio coralliilyticus 58, isolated from Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae.

We report here the complete genome of Vibrio coralliilyticus strain 58, which was originally isolated from inactive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae in Japan. The assembled genome consisted of two chromosomes and one plasmid. These data will provide valuable information and important insights into the biodiversity of this organism. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida strain OT-51443 isolated from yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) in Japan.

Pseudotuberculosis caused by infection of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida has caused serious economic damages to aquaculture farms worldwide. Here, the whole-genome sequence of P. damselae subsp. piscicida strain OT-51443, isolated in Japan, was determined and suggests that this genome consists of two chromosomes and five plasmids. Copyright © 2017 Aoki et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Biosynthesis of 1a-hydroxycorticosterone in the winter skate Leucoraja ocellata: evidence to suggest a novel steroidogenic route.

The present study explores the ability of intracellular bacteria within the renal-inter-renal tissue of the winter skate Leucoraja ocellata to metabolize steroids and contribute to the synthesis of the novel elasmobranch corticosteroid, 1a-hydroxycorticosterone (1a-OH-B). Despite the rarity of C1 hydroxylation noted in the original identification of 1a-OH-B, literature provides evidence for steroid C1 hydroxylation by micro-organisms. Eight ureolytic bacterial isolates were identified in the renal-inter-renal tissue of L. ocellata, the latter being the site of 1a-OH-B synthesis. From incubations of bacterial isolates with known amounts of potential 1a-OH-B precursors, one isolate UM008 of the genus Rhodococcus was seen to metabolize corticosteroids and produce novel products via HPLC analysis. Cations Zn2+and Fe3+altered metabolism of certain steroid precursors, suggesting inhibition of Rhodococcus steroid catabolism. Genome sequencing of UM008 identified strong sequence and structural homology to that of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4. A complete enzymatic pathway for steroid-ring oxidation as documented within other Actinobacteria was identified within the UM008 genome. This study highlights the potential role of Rhodococcus bacteria in steroid metabolism and proposes a novel alternative pathway for 1a-OH-B synthesis, suggesting a unique form of mutualism between intracellular bacteria and their elasmobranch host.© 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.


July 7, 2019  |  

Plasmid composition in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida 01-B526 unravels unsuspected type three secretion system loss patterns.

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a ubiquitous psychrophilic waterborne bacterium and a fish pathogen. The numerous mobile elements, especially insertion sequences (IS), in its genome promote rearrangements that impact its phenotype. One of the main virulence factors of this bacterium, its type three secretion system (TTSS), is affected by these rearrangements. In Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida most of the TTSS genes are encoded in a single locus on a large plasmid called pAsa5, and may be lost when the bacterium is cultivated at a higher temperature (25 °C), producing non-virulent mutants. In a previous study, pAsa5-rearranged strains that lacked the TTSS locus on pAsa5 were produced using parental strains, including 01-B526. Some of the generated deletions were explained by homologous recombination between ISs found on pAsa5, whereas the others remained unresolved. To investigate those rearrangements, short- and long-read high-throughput sequencing technologies were used on the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida 01-B526 whole genome.Whole genome sequencing of the 01-B526 strain revealed that its pAsa5 has an additional IS copy, an ISAS5, compared to the reference strain (A449) sequence, which allowed for a previously unknown rearrangement to occur. It also appeared that 01-B526 bears a second large plasmid, named pAsa9, which shares 40 kbp of highly similar sequences with pAsa5. Following these discoveries, previously unexplained deletions were elucidated by genotyping. Furthermore, in one of the derived strains a fusion of pAsa5 and pAsa9, involving the newly discovered ISAS5 copy, was observed.The loss of TTSS and hence virulence is explained by one consistent mechanism: IS-driven homologous recombination. The similarities between pAsa9 and pAsa5 also provide another example of genetic diversity driven by ISs.


July 7, 2019  |  

Whole-genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida strain 91-197, isolated from hybrid striped bass (Morone sp.) in the United States.

Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida is a causative bacterium of fish pasteurellosis, which has caused serious economic damage to aquaculture farms worldwide. Here, the whole-genome sequence of P. damselae subsp. piscicida 91-197, isolated in the United States, suggests that this genome consists of two chromosomes and two plasmids. Copyright © 2017 Teru et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Plasmid dynamics in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains related to shrimp Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome (AHPNS).

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a causative agent of acute hapatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS) which causes early mortality in white shrimp. Emergence of AHPNS has caused tremendous economic loss for aquaculture industry particularly in Asia since 2010. Previous studies reported that strains causing AHPNS harbor a 69-kb plasmid with possession of virulence genes, pirA and pirB. However, genetic variation of the 69-kb plasmid among AHPNS related strains has not been investigated. This study aimed to analyze genetic composition and diversity of the 69-kb plasmid in strains isolated from shrimps affected by AHPNS. Plasmids recovered from V. parahaemolyticus strain VPE61 which represented typical AHPNS pathogenicity, strain VP2HP which did not represent AHPNS pathogenicity but was isolated from AHPNS affected shrimp and other AHPNS V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Genbank were investigated. Protein coding genes of the 69-kb plasmid from the strain VPE61 were identical to that of AHPNS strain from Vietnam except the inverted complement 3.4-kb transposon covering pirA and pirB. The strain VP2HP possessed remarkable large 183-kb plasmid which shared similar protein coding genes to those of the 69-kb plasmid from strain VPE61. However, the 3.4-kb transposon covering pirA and pirB was absent from the 183-kb plasmid in strain VP2HP. A number of protein coding genes from the 183-kb plasmid were also detected in other AHPNS strains. In summary, this study identified a novel 183-kb plasmid that is related to AHPNS causing strains. Homologous recombination of the 69-kb AHPNS plasmid and other naturally occurring plasmids together with loss and gain of AHPNS virulence genes in V. parahaemolyticus were observed. The outcome of this research enables understanding of plasmid dynamics that possibly affect variable degrees of AHPNS pathogenicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

The genetic basis of resistance and matching-allele interactions of a host-parasite system: The Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa model.

Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) is an evolutionary mechanism suggested to govern host-parasite coevolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity at host resistance loci, such as the vertebrate MHC and R-genes in plants. Matching-allele interactions of hosts and parasites that prevent the emergence of host and parasite genotypes that are universally resistant and infective are a genetic mechanism predicted to underpin NFDS. The underlying genetics of matching-allele interactions are unknown even in host-parasite systems with empirical support for coevolution by NFDS, as is the case for the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna and the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa. We fine-map one locus associated with D. magna resistance to P. ramosa and genetically characterize two haplotypes of the Pasteuria resistance (PR-) locus using de novo genome and transcriptome sequencing. Sequence comparison of PR-locus haplotypes finds dramatic structural polymorphisms between PR-locus haplotypes including a large portion of each haplotype being composed of non-homologous sequences resulting in haplotypes differing in size by 66 kb. The high divergence of PR-locus haplotypes suggest a history of multiple, diverse and repeated instances of structural mutation events and restricted recombination. Annotation of the haplotypes reveals striking differences in gene content. In particular, a group of glycosyltransferase genes that is present in the susceptible but absent in the resistant haplotype. Moreover, in natural populations, we find that the PR-locus polymorphism is associated with variation in resistance to different P. ramosa genotypes, pointing to the PR-locus polymorphism as being responsible for the matching-allele interactions that have been previously described for this system. Our results conclusively identify a genetic basis for the matching-allele interaction observed in a coevolving host-parasite system and provide a first insight into its molecular basis.


July 7, 2019  |  

Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta).

Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection. Cytoskeletal motor proteins in Porphyra are restricted to a small set of kinesins that appear to be the only universal cytoskeletal motors within the red algae. Dynein motors are absent, and most red algae, including Porphyra, lack myosin. This surprisingly minimal cytoskeleton offers a potential explanation for why red algal cells and multicellular structures are more limited in size than in most multicellular lineages. Additional discoveries further relating to the stress tolerance of bangiophytes include ancestral enzymes for sulfation of the hydrophilic galactan-rich cell wall, evidence for mannan synthesis that originated before the divergence of green and red algae, and a high capacity for nutrient uptake. Our analyses provide a comprehensive understanding of the red algae, which are both commercially important and have played a major role in the evolution of other algal groups through secondary endosymbioses.


July 7, 2019  |  

The complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum provides insights into virulence mechanisms.

Tenacibaculum maritimum is a devastating bacterial pathogen of wild and farmed marine fish with a broad host range and a worldwide distribution. We report here the complete genome sequence of the T. maritimum type strain NCIMB 2154(T). The genome consists of a 3,435,971-base pair circular chromosome with 2,866 predicted protein-coding genes. Genes encoding the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, the type IX secretion system, iron uptake systems, adhesins, hemolysins, proteases, and glycoside hydrolases were identified. They are likely involved in the virulence process including immune escape, invasion, colonization, destruction of host tissues, and nutrient scavenging. Among the predicted virulence factors, type IX secretion-mediated and cell-surface exposed proteins were identified including an atypical sialidase, a sphingomyelinase and a chondroitin AC lyase which activities were demonstrated in vitro.


July 7, 2019  |  

Variations in 5S rDNAs in diploid and tetraploid offspring of red crucian carp × common carp.

The allotetraploid hybrid fish (4nAT) that was created in a previous study through an intergeneric cross between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ?) provided an excellent platform to investigate the effect of hybridization and polyploidization on the evolution of 5S rDNA. The 5S rDNAs of paternal common carp were made up of a coding sequence (CDS) and a non-transcribed spacer (NTS) unit, and while the 5S rDNAs of maternal red crucian carp contained a CDS and a NTS unit, they also contained a variable number of interposed regions (IPRs). The CDSs of the 5S rDNAs in both parental fishes were conserved, while their NTS units seemed to have been subjected to rapid evolution.The diploid hybrid 2nF1 inherited all the types of 5S rDNAs in both progenitors and there were no signs of homeologous recombination in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1 by sequencing of PCR products. We obtained two segments of 5S rDNA with a total length of 16,457 bp from allotetraploid offspring 4nAT through bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing. Using this sequence together with the 5S rDNA sequences amplified from the genomic DNA of 4nAT, we deduced that the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT might be inherited from the maternal progenitor red crucian carp. Additionally, the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT contained A-repeats and TA-repeats, which was not the case for the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1. We also detected two signals of a 200-bp fragment of 5S rDNA in the chromosomes of parental progenitors and hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).We deduced that during the evolution of 5S rDNAs in different ploidy hybrid fishes, interlocus gene conversion events and tandem repeat insertion events might occurred in the process of polyploidization. This study provided new insights into the relationship among the evolution of 5S rDNAs, hybridization and polyploidization, which were significant in clarifying the genome evolution of polyploid fish.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease-causing Vibrio campbellii LA16-V1, isolated from Penaeus vannamei cultured in a Latin American country.

We report here the complete genome sequence of Vibrio campbellii, isolated from Penaeus vannamei cultured in a Latin American country. The Tn3-like transposon and pirAB genes were encoded on the plasmid pLA16-2. These data support the geographical variations in the virulence plasmid found among acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND)-causing Vibrio isolates from Latin America and Asia. Copyright © 2017 Ahn et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

pirAB(vp) -bearing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio campbellii pathogens isolated from the same AHPND-affected pond possess highly similar pathogenic plasmids.

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe shrimp disease originally shown to be caused by virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND). Rare cases of AHPND caused by Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus were reported. We compared an AHPND-causing V. campbellii (VCAHPND) and a VPAHPND isolate from the same AHPND-affected pond. Both strains are positive for the virulence genes pirAB(vp) . Immersion challenge test with Litopenaeus vannamei indicated the two strains possessed similar pathogenicity. Complete genome comparison showed that the pirAB(vp) -bearing plasmids in the two strains were highly homologous, and they both shared high homologies with plasmid pVA1, the reported pirAB(vp) -bearing plasmid. Conjugation and DNA-uptake genes were found on the pVA1-type plasmids and the host chromosomes, respectively, which may facilitate the dissemination of pirAB(vp) . Novel variations likely driven by ISVal1 in the genetic contexts of the pirAB(vp) genes were found in the two strains. Moreover, the VCAHPND isolate additionally contains multiple antibiotic resistance genes, which may bring difficulties to control its future outbreak. The dissemination of the pirAB(vp) in non-parahaemolyticus Vibrio also rises the concern of missing detection in industrial settings since the isolation method currently used mainly targeting V. parahaemolyticus. This study provides timely information for better understanding of the causes of AHPND and molecular epidemiology of pirAB(vp) and also appeals for precautions to encounter the dissemination of the hazardous genes.


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