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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The genome of the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma.

Marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) is considered to be a useful fish model for marine and estuarine ecotoxicology studies and has good potential for field-based population genomics because of its geographical distribution in Asian estuarine and coastal areas. In this study, we present the first whole-genome draft of O. melastigma. The genome assembly consists of 8,602 scaffolds (N50 = 23.737 Mb) and a total genome length of 779.4 Mb. A total of 23,528 genes were predicted, and 12,670 gene families shared with three teleost species (Japanese medaka, mangrove killifish and zebrafish) were identified. Genome analyses revealed that the O. melastigma genome is highly heterozygous and contains a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Early life stages of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) are sensitive to fish feed containing the anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron.

Increasing use of fish feed containing the chitin synthesis inhibiting anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron (DFB) in salmon aquaculture has raised concerns over its impact on coastal ecosystems. Larvae of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were exposed to DFB medicated feed under Control conditions (7.0?°C, pH 8.0) and under Ocean Acidification and Warming conditions (OAW, 9.5?°C and pH 7.6). Two weeks’ exposure to DFB medicated feed caused significantly increased mortality. The effect of OAW and DFB on mortality of shrimp larvae was additive; 10% mortality in Control, 35% in OAW, 66% in DFB and 92% in OAW?+?DFB. In OAW?+?DFB feeding and swimming activity…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Isolation, functional characterization and transmissibility of p3PS10, a multidrug resistance plasmid of the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern due to its association with the loss of efficacy of antimicrobial therapies. Horizontal transfer events may play a significant role in the dissemination of resistant bacterial phenotypes, being mobilizable plasmids a well-known mechanism. In this study, we aimed to gain insights into the genetics underlying the development of antibiotic resistance by Piscirickettsia salmonis isolates, a bacterial fish pathogen and causative agent of salmonid piscirickettsiosis, and the main target of antibiotics used in Chilean salmon farming. We provide experimental evidence that the plasmid p3PS10, which harbors multidrug resistance genes for chloramphenicol (cat2), tetracyclines…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete genome sequence of Vibrio aestuarianus W-40 reveals virulence factor genes.

Vibrio aestuarianus is an opportunistic environmental pathogen that has been associated with epidemics in cultured shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Hepatopancreas microsporidian (HPM) and monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) have been reported in cultured P. vannamei. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the whole genome of V. aestuarianus strain W-40, a strain that was originally isolated from the intestines of an infected P. vannamei. The genome of V. aestuarianus strain W-40 contains two circular chromosomes of 483,7307 bp with a 46.23% GC content. We identified 4,457 open reading frames (ORFs) that occupy 86.35% of the genome. Vibrio aestuarianus strain W-40 consists primarily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Completion of genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida 01-B526 reveals how sequencing technologies can influence sequence quality and result interpretations.

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a pathogen that primarily infects salmonids. A strain of this bacterium, 01-B526, has been used in several studies as a reference. The genomic sequence of this strain is available, but comes from pyrosequencing and is the second most fragmented assembly for this bacterium. We generated its closed genome sequence and found a pitfall in result interpretations associated with low-quality genomic sequences.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Draft genome of Glyptosternon maculatum, an endemic fish from Tibet Plateau.

Mechanisms for high-altitude adaption have attracted widespread interest among evolutionary biologists. Several genome-wide studies have been carried out for endemic vertebrates in Tibet, including mammals, birds, and amphibians. However, little information is available about the adaptive evolution of highland fishes. Glyptosternon maculatum (Regan 1905), also known as Regan or barkley and endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, belongs to the Sisoridae family, order Siluriformes (catfishes). This species lives at an elevation ranging from roughly 2,800 m to 4,200 m. Hence, a high-quality reference genome of G. maculatum provides an opportunity to investigate high-altitude adaption mechanisms of fishes.To obtain a high-quality reference…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A draft genome assembly of the Chinese sillago (Sillago sinica), the first reference genome for Sillaginidae fishes.

Sillaginidae, also known as smelt-whitings, is a family of benthic coastal marine fishes in the Indo-West Pacific that have high ecological and economic importance. Many Sillaginidae species, including the Chinese sillago (Sillago sinica), have been recently described in China, providing valuable material to analyze genetic diversification of the family Sillaginidae. Here, we constructed a reference genome for the Chinese sillago, with the aim to set up a platform for comparative analysis of all species in this family.Using the single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing platform Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) Sequel, we generated ~27.3 Gb genomic DNA sequences for the Chinese sillago. We reconstructed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

B chromosomes of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) contribute to genome variations at the level of individuals and populations.

The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is a bony fish from the Latidae family, which is widely distributed in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region. The karyotype of the Asian seabass contains 24 pairs of A chromosomes and a variable number of AT- and GC-rich B chromosomes (Bchrs or Bs). Dot-like shaped and nucleolus-associated AT-rich Bs were microdissected and sequenced earlier. Here we analyzed DNA fragments from Bs to determine their repeat and gene contents using the Asian seabass genome as a reference. Fragments of 75 genes, including an 18S rRNA gene, were found in the Bs; repeats represented 2% of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Development and validation of 58K SNP-array and high-density linkage map in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus).

Despite being the second most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for 7.4% of global production in 2015, tilapia aquaculture has lacked genomic tools like SNP-arrays and high-density linkage maps to improve selection accuracy and accelerate genetic progress. In this paper, we describe the development of a genotyping array containing more than 58,000 SNPs for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). SNPs were identified from whole genome resequencing of 32 individuals from the commercial population of the Genomar strain, and were selected for the SNP-array based on polymorphic information content and physical distribution across the genome using the Orenil1.1 genome assembly…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

First draft genome sequence of the rock bream in the family Oplegnathidae.

The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) is one of the most economically valuable marine fish in East Asia, and due to various environmental factors, there is substantial revenue loss in the production sector. Therefore, knowledge of its genome is required to uncover the genetic factors and the solutions to these problems. In this study, we constructed the first draft genome of O. fasciatus as a reference for the family Oplegnathidae. The genome size is estimated to be 749?Mb, and it was assembled into 766?Mb by combining Illumina and PacBio sequences. A total of 24,053 transcripts (23,338 genes) are predicted, and among…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

pYR4 from a Norwegian isolate of Yersinia ruckeri is a putative virulence plasmid encoding both a type IV pilus and a type IV secretion system

Enteric redmouth disease caused by the pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a significant problem for fish farming around the world. Despite its importance, only a few virulence factors of Y. ruckeri have been identified and studied in detail. Here, we report and analyze the complete DNA sequence of pYR4, a plasmid from a highly pathogenic Norwegian Y. ruckeri isolate, sequenced using PacBio SMRT technology. Like the well-known pYV plasmid of human pathogenic Yersiniae, pYR4 is a member of the IncFII family. Thirty-one percent of the pYR4 sequence is unique compared to other Y. ruckeri plasmids. The unique regions contain, among others…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A continuous genome assembly of the corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops).

The wrasses (Labridae) are one of the most successful and species-rich families of the Perciformes order of teleost fish. Its members display great morphological diversity, and occupy distinct trophic levels in coastal waters and coral reefs. The cleaning behaviour displayed by some wrasses, such as corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), is of particular interest for the salmon aquaculture industry to combat and control sea lice infestation as an alternative to chemicals and pharmaceuticals. There are still few genome assemblies available within this fish family for comparative and functional studies, despite the rapid increase in genome resources generated during the past years.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole-genome sequencing of Chinese yellow catfish provides a valuable genetic resource for high-throughput identification of toxin genes.

Naturally derived toxins from animals are good raw materials for drug development. As a representative venomous teleost, Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) can provide valuable resources for studies on toxin genes. Its venom glands are located in the pectoral and dorsal fins. Although with such interesting biologic traits and great value in economy, Chinese yellow catfish is still lacking a sequenced genome. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of Chinese yellow catfish using a combination of next-generation Illumina and third-generation PacBio sequencing platforms. The final assembly reached 714 Mb, with a contig N50 of 970 kb and a scaffold…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

An improved genome assembly for Larimichthys crocea reveals hepcidin gene expansion with diversified regulation and function.

Larimichthys crocea (large yellow croaker) is a type of perciform fish well known for its peculiar physiological properties and economic value. Here, we constructed an improved version of the L. crocea genome assembly, which contained 26,100 protein-coding genes. Twenty-four pseudo-chromosomes of L. crocea were also reconstructed, comprising 90% of the genome assembly. This improved assembly revealed several expansions in gene families associated with olfactory detection, detoxification, and innate immunity. Specifically, six hepcidin genes (LcHamps) were identified in L. crocea, possibly resulting from lineage-specific gene duplication. All LcHamps possessed similar genomic structures and functional domains, but varied substantially with respect to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Insights into the microbiota of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) with tenacibaculosis symptoms and description of sp. nov. Tenacibaculum singaporense

Outbreaks of diseases in farmed fish remain a recurring problem despite the development of vaccines and improved hygiene standards on aquaculture farms. One commonly observed bacterial disease in tropical aquaculture of the South-East Asian region is tenacibaculosis, which is attributed to members of the Bacteroidetes genus Tenacibaculum, most notably T. maritimum. The impact of tenacibaculosis on fish microbiota remains poorly understood. In this study, we analysed the microbiota of different tissue types of commercially reared Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) that showed symptoms of tenacibaculosis and compared the microbial communities to those of healthy and experimentally infected fish that were exposed…

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