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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Single-molecule long-read sequencing facilitates shrimp transcriptome research.

Although shrimp are of great economic importance, few full-length shrimp transcriptomes are available. Here, we used Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time (SMRT) long-read sequencing technology to generate transcripts from the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). We obtained 322,600 full-length non-chimeric reads, from which we generated 51,367 high-quality unique full-length transcripts. We corrected errors in the SMRT sequences by comparison with Illumina-produced short reads. We successfully annotated 81.72% of all unique SMRT transcripts against the NCBI non-redundant database, 58.63% against Swiss-Prot, 45.38% against Gene Ontology, 32.57% against Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG), and 47.83% against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Constructing a ‘chromonome’ of yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) for comparative analysis of chromosomal rearrangements.

To investigate chromosome evolution in fish species, we newly mapped 181 markers that allowed us to construct a yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) radiation hybrid (RH) physical map with 1,713 DNA markers, which was far denser than a previous map, and we anchored thede novoassembled sequences onto the RH physical map. Finally, we mapped a total of 13,977 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on a genome sequence assembly aligned with the physical map. Using the high-density physical map and anchored genome sequences, we accurately compared the yellowtail genome structure with the genome structures of five model fishes to identify characteristics of the yellowtail…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

First draft genome of an iconic clownfish species (Amphiprion frenatus).

Clownfishes (or anemonefishes) form an iconic group of coral reef fishes, principally known for their mutualistic interaction with sea anemones. They are characterized by particular life history traits, such as a complex social structure and mating system involving sequential hermaphroditism, coupled with an exceptionally long lifespan. Additionally, clownfishes are considered to be one of the rare groups to have experienced an adaptive radiation in the marine environment. Here, we assembled and annotated the first genome of a clownfish species, the tomato clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus). We obtained 17,801 assembled scaffolds, containing a total of 26,917 genes. The completeness of the assembly…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The repeat structure of two paralogous genes, Yersinia ruckeri invasin (yrInv) and a “Y. ruckeri invasin-like molecule”, (yrIlm) sheds light on the evolution of adhesive capacities of a fish pathogen.

Inverse autotransporters comprise the recently identified type Ve secretion system and are exemplified by intimin from enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and invasin from enteropathogenic Yersiniae. These proteins share a common domain architecture and promote bacterial adhesion to host cells. Here, we identified and characterized two putative inverse autotransporter genes in the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri NVH_3758, namely yrInv (for Y. ruckeri invasin) and yrIlm (for Y. ruckeri invasin-like molecule). When trying to clone the highly repetitive genes for structural and functional studies, we experienced problems in obtaining PCR products. PCR failures and the highly repetitive nature of inverse autotransporters prompted us…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A hybrid-hierarchical genome assembly strategy to sequence the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei.

For more than 25 years, the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei has aggressively invaded South American freshwaters, having travelled more than 5,000 km upstream across five countries. Along the way, the golden mussel has outcompeted native species and economically harmed aquaculture, hydroelectric powers, and ship transit. We have sequenced the complete genome of the golden mussel to understand the molecular basis of its invasiveness and search for ways to control it.We assembled the 1.6 Gb genome into 20548 scaffolds with an N50 length of 312 Kb using a hybrid and hierarchical assembly strategy from short and long DNA reads and transcriptomes.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome of Cobetia marina JCM 21022T and phylogenomic analysis of the family Halomonadaceae

Cobetia marina is a model proteobacteria in researches on marine biofouling. Its taxonomic nomenclature has been revised many times over the past few decades. To better understand the role of the surface-associated lifestyle of C. marina and the phylogeny of the family Halomonadaceae, we sequenced the entire genome of C. marina JCM 21022T using single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) and performed comparative genomics and phylogenomics analyses. The circular chromosome was 4 176 300 bp with an average GC content of 62.44% and contained 3 611 predicted coding sequences, 72 tRNA genes, and 21 rRNA genes. The C. marina JCM…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole genome sequencing of greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) for SNP identification on aligned scaffolds and genome structural variation analysis using parallel resequencing

Greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) is distributed in tropical and temperate waters worldwide and is an important aquaculture fish. We carried out de novo sequencing of the greater amberjack genome to construct a reference genome sequence to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for breeding amberjack by marker-assisted or gene-assisted selection as well as to identify functional genes for biological traits. We obtained 200 times coverage and constructed a high-quality genome assembly using next generation sequencing technology. The assembled sequences were aligned onto a yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) radiation hybrid (RH) physical map by sequence homology. A total of 215 of the longest…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The genome sequence of a new strain of Mycobacterium ulcerans ecovar Liflandii, emerging as a sturgeon pathogen

Mycobacterium ulcerans ecovar Liflandii (MuLiflandii) is emerging as a non-mycobacterial pathogen in amphibians. Here, we make the first report on the prevalence of a new strain of MuLiflandii infection in Chinese sturgeon. All the diseased fish showed the classic clinical symptoms of ascites and/or muscle ulceration. A new slow-growing and acid-fast bacillus ASM001 strain was obtained from the ascites of infected fish; this strain demonstrated pathogenicity when tested in hybrid sturgeon. The complete genome sequence of MuLiflandii ASM001 is a circular chromosome of 6,167,296?bp, with a G?+?C content of 65.57%, containing 4518 predicted coding DNA sequences and 999 pseudo-genes, 3…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptional profiling, molecular cloning, and functional analysis of C1 inhibitor, the main regulator of the complement system in black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii.

C1-inhibitor (C1inh) plays a crucial role in assuring homeostasis and is the central regulator of the complement activation involved in immunity and inflammation. A C1-inhibitor gene from Sebastes schlegelii was identified and designated as SsC1inh. The identified genomic DNA and cDNA sequences were 6837 bp and 2161 bp, respectively. The genomic DNA possessed 11 exons, interrupted by 10 introns. The amino acid sequence possessed two immunoglobulin-like domains and a serpin domain. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the serpin domain of SsC1inh was highly conserved among analyzed species where the two immunoglobulin-like domains showed divergence. The distinctiveness of teleost C1inh from…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Pathogen-specific binding soluble Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) regulates phagocytosis via membrane-bound Dscam in crab.

The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene is an extraordinary example of diversity that can produce thousands of isoforms and has so far been found only in insects and crustaceans. Cumulative evidence indicates that Dscam may contribute to the mechanistic foundations of specific immune responses in insects. However, the mechanism and functions of Dscam in relation to pathogens and immunity remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the genome organization and alternative Dscam exons from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. These variants, designated EsDscam, potentially produce 30,600 isoforms due to three alternatively spliced immunoglobulin (Ig) domains and a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequences of seven Vibrio anguillarum strains as derived from PacBio sequencing.

We report here the complete genome sequences of seven Vibrio anguillarum strains isolated from multiple geographic locations, thus increasing the total number of genomes of finished quality to 11. The genomes were de novo assembled from long-sequence PacBio reads. Including draft genomes, a total of 44?V. anguillarum genomes are currently available in the genome databases. They represent an important resource in the study of, for example, genetic variations and for identifying virulence determinants. In this article, we present the genomes and basic genome comparisons of the 11 complete genomes, including a BRIG analysis, and pan genome calculation. We also describe…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Somatic hypermutation of T cell receptor a chain contributes to selection in nurse shark thymus.

Since the discovery of the T cell receptor (TcR), immunologists have assigned somatic hypermutation (SHM) as a mechanism employed solely by B cells to diversify their antigen receptors. Remarkably, we found SHM acting in the thymus on a chain locus of shark TcR. SHM in developing shark T cells likely is catalyzed by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and results in both point and tandem mutations that accumulate non-conservative amino acid replacements within complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). Mutation frequency at TcRa was as high as that seen at B cell receptor loci (BcR) in sharks and mammals, and the mechanism of SHM…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) genome and transcriptome.

When unifying genomic resources among studies and comparing data between species, there is often no better resource than a genome sequence. Having a reference genome for the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) will enable the extensive genomic resources available for Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon, and rainbow trout to be leveraged when asking questions related to the Chinook salmon. The Chinook salmon’s wide distribution, long cultural impact, evolutionary history, substantial hatchery production, and recent wild-population decline make it an important research species. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the genome of a Chilliwack River Hatchery female Chinook salmon (gynogenetic and homozygous…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic architecture of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) shows expansions of innate immune genes and short tandem repeats.

Increased availability of genome assemblies for non-model organisms has resulted in invaluable biological and genomic insight into numerous vertebrates, including teleosts. Sequencing of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) genome and the genomes of many of its relatives (Gadiformes) demonstrated a shared loss of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II genes 100 million years ago. An improved version of the Atlantic cod genome assembly shows an extreme density of tandem repeats compared to other vertebrate genome assemblies. Highly contiguous assemblies are therefore needed to further investigate the unusual immune system of the Gadiformes, and whether the high density of tandem repeats…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Antioxidative properties and structural features of atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from Sebastes schlegelii.

Atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx5) is an antioxidant protein that exerts its antioxidant function by detoxifying different reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we identified mitochondrial Prx5 from rockfish (SsPrx5) and described its specific structural and functional characteristics. The open reading frame (ORF) of SsPrx5 (570 bp) was translated into a 190-amino acid polypeptide that contained a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS), thioredoxin 2 domain, two Prx-specific signature motifs, and three conserved cysteine residues. Sequence comparison indicated that the SsPrx5 protein sequence shared greatest identity with teleost orthologs, where the phylogenetic results showed an evolutionary position within the fish Prx5. The coding sequence…

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