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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Efficacy of Newly Isolated and Highly Potent Bacteriophages in a Mouse Model of XDRAB Bacteremia.

Bacteremia can be caused by Acinetobacter baumannii with clinical manifestations ranging from transient bacteremia to septic shock. Extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB) strains producing the New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase, which confers resistance to all ß-lactams including carbapenems, have emerged and infected patients suffer increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospitalization. The lack of new antimicrobials led to a renewed interest into phage therapy, the so-called forgotten cure. Accordingly, we tested new lytic bacteriophages in a Galleria mellonella and a mouse model of XDRAB-induced bacteremia.Galleria mellonella were challenged with 5.105 CFU of the XDRAB strain FER. Phages vB_AbaM_3054 and vB_AbaM_3090 were administrated…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Integrating multiple genomic technologies to investigate an outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter hormaechei

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) represent one of the most urgent threats to human health posed by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Enterobacter hormaechei and other members of the Enterobacter cloacae complex are the most commonly encountered Enterobacter spp. within clinical settings, responsible for numerous outbreaks and ultimately poorer patient outcomes. Here we applied three complementary whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies to characterise a hospital cluster of blaIMP-4 carbapenemase-producing E. hormaechei.In response to a suspected CRE outbreak in 2015 within an Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/Burns Unit in a Brisbane tertiary referral hospital we used Illumina sequencing to determine that all outbreak isolates were sequence…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Detection of transferable oxazolidinone resistance determinants in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium of swine origin in Sichuan Province, China.

The aim of this study was to detect the transferable oxazolidinone resistance determinants (cfr, optrA and poxtA) in E. faecalis and E. faecium of swine origin in Sichuan Province, China.A total of 158 enterococci strains (93 E. faecalis and 65 E. faecium) isolated from 25 large-scale swine farms were screened for the presence of cfr, optrA and poxtA by PCR. The genetic environments of cfr, optrA and poxtA were characterized by whole genome sequencing. Transfer of oxazolidinone resistance determinants was determined by conjugation or electrotransformation experiments.The transferable oxazolidinone resistance determinants, cfr, optrA and poxtA, were detected in zero, six, and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The use of Online Tools for Antimicrobial Resistance Prediction by Whole Genome Sequencing in MRSA and VRE.

The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis represents a serious threat to public health and has resulted in concentrated efforts to accelerate development of rapid molecular diagnostics for AMR. In combination with publicly-available web-based AMR databases, whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers the capacity for rapid detection of antibiotic resistance genes. Here we studied the concordance between WGS-based resistance prediction and phenotypic susceptibility testing results for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) clinical isolates using publicly-available tools and databases.Clinical isolates prospectively collected at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between December 2016 and December 2017 underwent WGS. Antibiotic resistance gene…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Pandemic spread of blaKPC-2 among Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 in China is associated with horizontal transfer mediated by IncFII-like plasmids.

This study aimed to investigate the spread of the blaKPC-2 gene among Klebsiella pneumoniae and to illustrate the mechanism of dissemination of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) ST11 in China.A total of 354 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from four hospitals in China and were characterized by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were used to identify the subtypes of K. pneumoniae ST11. PCR-based amplification and sequencing were performed to analyze Tn1721 transposons and IncFII-like plasmids. Electroporation experiments and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis were used to reveal the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A novel blaSIM-1-carrying megaplasmid pSIM-1-BJ01 isolated from clinical Klebsiella pneumonia

A rare carbapenem-resistant gene blaSIM-1 was found in a 316-kb megaplasmid designated pSIM-1-BJ01 isolated from a clinical strain Klebsiella pneumonia 13624. The plasmid pSIM-1-BJ01 was fully sequenced and analyzed. Its length is 316,557 bp and it has 342 putative open reading frames with two multidrug-resistant regions and a total of 19 resistant genes. Its backbone was highly homologous to the newly reported plasmid pRJA166a, which was isolated from a clinical third-generation cephalosporin-resistant hypervirulen strain K. pneumonia ST23. The plasmid pSIM-1-BJ01 was verified to be able to transfer to Escherichia coli. The emergency of the transferable blaSIM-1-carrying multidrug-resistant plasmid pSIM-1-BJ01 suggests…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome screening of clinical MRSA isolates identifies lineage diversity and provides full resolution of transmission and outbreak events

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly used as part of infection prevention practices, but most applications are focused on conserved core genomic regions due to limitations of short-read technologies. In this study we established a long-read technology-based WGS screening program of all first-episode MRSA blood infections at a major urban hospital. A survey of 132 MRSA genomes assembled from long reads revealed widespread gain/loss of accessory mobile genetic elements among established hospital- and community-associated lineages impacting >10% of each genome, and frequent megabase-scale inversions between endogenous prophages. We also characterized an outbreak of a CC5/ST105/USA100 clone among 3…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Insertion sequences drive the emergence of a highly adapted human pathogen.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly adaptive opportunistic pathogen that can have serious health consequences in patients with lung disorders. Taxonomic outliers of P. aeruginosa of environmental origin have recently emerged as infectious for humans. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis of an isolate that caused fatal haemorrhagic pneumonia. In two clones, CLJ1 and CLJ3, sequentially recovered from a patient with chronic pulmonary disease, insertion of a mobile genetic element into the P. aeruginosa chromosome affected major virulence-associated phenotypes and led to increased resistance to the antibiotics used to combat the infection. Comparative genome, proteome and transcriptome analyses revealed that…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome sequence analysis of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from mice caught on poultry farms in the mid 1990s.

A total of 91 draft genome sequences were used to analyze isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis obtained from feral mice caught on poultry farms in Pennsylvania. One objective was to find mutations disrupting open reading frames (ORFs) and another was to determine if ORF-disruptive mutations were present in isolates obtained from other sources. A total of 83 mice were obtained between 1995-1998. Isolates separated into two genomic clades and 12 subgroups due to 742 mutations. Nineteen ORF-disruptive mutations were found, and in addition, bigA had exceptional heterogeneity requiring additional evaluation. The TRAMS algorithm detected only 6 ORF disruptions. The…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Evolution and global transmission of a multidrug-resistant, community-associated MRSA lineage from the Indian subcontinent

The evolution and global transmission of antimicrobial resistance has been well documented in Gram-negative bacteria and healthcare-associated epidemic pathogens, often emerging from regions with heavy antimicrobial use. However, the degree to which similar processes occur with Gram-positive bacteria in the community setting is less well understood. Here, we trace the recent origins and global spread of a multidrug resistant, community-associated Staphylococcus aureus lineage from the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal Bay clone (ST772). We generated whole genome sequence data of 340 isolates from 14 countries, including the first isolates from Bangladesh and India, to reconstruct the evolutionary history and genomic epidemiology…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Molecular Characterization of a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain R46 Isolated from a Rabbit

To investigate the mechanisms of multiple resistance and the horizontal transfer of resistance genes in animal pathogens, we characterized the molecular structures of the resistance gene-related sequences in a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain R46 isolated from a rabbit. Molecular cloning was performed to clone the resistance genes, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured to determine the resistance characteristics of the cloned genes and related strains. A conjugation experiment was conducted to assess the transferability of the resistance plasmids. Sequencing and comparative genomic methods were used to analyze the structures of the resistance gene-related sequences. The K. pneumoniae R46 genome…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Impact of antibiotic treatment and host innate immune pressure on enterococcal adaptation in the human bloodstream.

Multidrug-resistant enterococcal strains emerged in the early 1980s and are now among the leading causes of drug-resistant bacterial infection worldwide. We used functional genomics to study an early bacterial outbreak in patients in a Wisconsin hospital between 1984 and 1988 that was caused by multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis The goal was to determine how a clonal lineage of E. faecalis became adapted to growth and survival in the human bloodstream. Genome sequence analysis revealed a progression of increasingly fixed mutations and repeated independent occurrences of mutations in a relatively small set of genes. Repeated independent mutations suggested selection within the host…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Assembly of Complete Genome Sequences of Negative-Control and Experimental Strain Variants of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA-39 Selected under the Effect of the Drug FS-1, Which Induces Antibiotic Resistance Reversion.

Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA-39 is the reference organism for a multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain that was used to study drug-induced resistance reversion by an iodine-containing nanomolecular complex, FS-1. PacBio sequencing was performed on both the experimental and control strains, followed by genome assembly, variant calling, and DNA modification profiling.Copyright © 2019 Joubert et al.

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