April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence of Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13, a silver nanoparticles synthesizing bacterium isolated from Arctic Ocean sediments

Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13, a silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesizing bacterium, was isolated from Arctic Ocean sediment. Here we describe the complete genome of Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13. The complete genome contains 4,040,012?bp with 66.66?mol%?G?+?C content, including one circular chromosome of 3,231,929?bp (67.45?mol%?G?+?C content), and eight plasmids with length ranging from 24,536?bp to 199,685?bp. The genome contains 3835 protein-coding genes (CDSs), 49 tRNA genes, as well as 3 rRNA operons as 16S-23S-5S rRNA. Based on the gene annotation and Swiss-Prot analysis, a total of 15 genes belonging to 11 kinds, including silver exporting P-type ATPase (SilP), alkaline phosphatase, nitroreductase, thioredoxin reductase, NADPH dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, might be related to the synthesis of AgNPs. Meanwhile, many additional genes associated with synthesis of AgNPs such as protein-disulfide isomerase, c-type cytochrome, glutathione synthase and dehydrogenase reductase were also identified.

April 21, 2020  |  

A chromosome-level genome assembly of Cydia pomonella provides insights into chemical ecology and insecticide resistance.

The codling moth Cydia pomonella, a major invasive pest of pome fruit, has spread around the globe in the last half century. We generated a chromosome-level scaffold assembly including the Z chromosome and a portion of the W chromosome. This assembly reveals the duplication of an olfactory receptor gene (OR3), which we demonstrate enhances the ability of C. pomonella to exploit kairomones and pheromones in locating both host plants and mates. Genome-wide association studies contrasting insecticide-resistant and susceptible strains identify hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) potentially associated with insecticide resistance, including three SNPs found in the promoter of CYP6B2. RNAi knockdown of CYP6B2 increases C. pomonella sensitivity to two insecticides, deltamethrin and azinphos methyl. The high-quality genome assembly of C. pomonella informs the genetic basis of its invasiveness, suggesting the codling moth has distinctive capabilities and adaptive potential that may explain its worldwide expansion.

September 22, 2019  |  

Molecular characteristics and comparative genomics analysis of a clinical Enterococcus casseliflavus with a resistance plasmid.

The aim of this work was to investigate the molecular characterization of a clinical Enterococcus casseliflavus strain with a resistance plasmid.En. casseliflavus EC369 was isolated from a patient in a hospital in southern China. The minimum inhibitory concentration was found by means of the agar dilution method to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the strains. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis were performed to analyze the mechanism of antibiotic resistance and the horizontal gene transfer of the resistance gene-related mobile genetic elements.En. casseliflavus EC369 showed resistance to erythromycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin, but was susceptible to vancomycin, ampicillin, and streptothricin and other antimicrobials. There were six resistance genes (aph3′, ant6, bla, sat4, and two ermBs) carried by a transposon identified on the plasmid pEC369 and a complete resistance gene cluster of vancomycin and a tet (M) gene encoded on the chromosome. This is the first complete plasmid sequence reported in clinically isolated En. casseliflavus. The plasmid with the greatest sequence identity with pEC369 was the plasmid of Enterococcus sp. FDAARGOS_375, followed by the plasmids of Enterococcus faecium strains F12085 and pRE25, whereas the sequence with the greatest identity to the resistance genes carrying a transposon of pEC369 was on the chromosome of Staphylococcus aureus strain GD1677.The resistance profiles of En. casseliflavus EC369 might contribute to the resistance genes encoded on the plasmid. The fact that the most similar sequence to the transposon carrying resistance genes of pEC369 was encoded in the chromosome of a S. aureus strain provides insights into the mechanism of dissemination of multidrug resistance between bacteria of different species or genera through horizontal gene transfer.

July 7, 2019  |  

The ß-lactamase gene profile and a plasmid-carrying multiple heavy metal resistance genes of Enterobacter cloacae.

In this work, by high-throughput sequencing, antibiotic resistance genes, including class A (blaCTX-M, blaZ, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaKLUC, and blaSFO), class C (blaSHV, blaDHA, blaMIR, blaAZECL-29, and blaACT), and class D (blaOXA) ß-lactamase genes, were identified among the pooled genomic DNA from 212 clinical Enterobacter cloacae isolates. Six blaMIR-positive E. cloacae strains were identified, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that these strains were not clonally related. The complete genome of the blaMIR-positive strain (Y546) consisted of both a chromosome (4.78?Mb) and a large plasmid pY546 (208.74?kb). The extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-9a) and AmpC (blaMIR) were encoded on the chromosome, and the pY546 plasmid contained several clusters of genes conferring resistance to metals, such as copper (pco), arsenic (ars), tellurite (ter), and tetrathionate (ttr), and genes encoding many divalent cation transporter proteins. The comparative genomic analyses of the whole plasmid sequence and of the heavy metal resistance gene-encoding regions revealed that the plasmid sequences of Klebsiella pneumoniae (such as pKPN-332, pKPN-3967, and pKPN-262) shared the highest similarity with those of pY546. It may be concluded that a variety of ß-lactamase genes present in E. cloacae which confer resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics and the emergence of plasmids carrying heavy metal resistance genes in clinical isolates are alarming and need further surveillance.

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