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April 1, 2019

Full-length transcriptome analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei reveals transcript variants involved in the innate immune system.

To better understand the immune system of shrimp, this study combined PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) and Illumina paired-end short reads sequencing methods to discover full-length immune-related molecules of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 72,648 nonredundant full-length transcripts (unigenes) were generated with an average length of 2545 bp from five main tissues, including the hepatopancreas, cardiac stomach, heart, muscle, and pyloric stomach. These unigenes exhibited a high annotation rate (62,164, 85.57%) when compared against NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, Pfam, GO, KEGG and COG databases. A total of 7544 putative long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were detected and 1164 nonredundant…

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January 14, 2019

Single molecule high-fidelity (HiFi) Sequencing with >10 kb libraries

Recent improvements in sequencing chemistry and instrument performance combine to create a new PacBio data type, Single Molecule High-Fidelity reads (HiFi reads). Increased read length and improvement in library construction enables average read lengths of 10-20 kb with average sequence identity greater than 99% from raw single molecule reads. The resulting reads have the accuracy comparable to short read NGS but with 50-100 times longer read length. Here we benchmark the performance of this data type by sequencing and genotyping the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) HG0002 human reference sample from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). We…

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January 13, 2019

Highly-accurate long-read sequencing improves variant detection and assembly of a human genome

The major DNA sequencing technologies in use today produce either highly-accurate short reads or noisy long reads. We developed a protocol based on single-molecule, circular consensus sequencing (CCS) to generate highly-accurate (99.8%) long reads averaging 13.5 kb and applied it to sequence the well-characterized human HG002/NA24385. We optimized existing tools to comprehensively detect variants, achieving precision and recall above 99.91% for SNVs, 95.98% for indels, and 95.99% for structural variants. We estimate that 2,434 discordances are correctable mistakes in the high-quality Genome in a Bottle benchmark. Nearly all (99.64%) variants are phased into haplotypes, which further improves variant detection. De…

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October 16, 2018

A simple segue from Sanger to high-throughput SMRT Sequencing with a M13 barcoding system

High-throughput NGS methods are increasingly utilized in the clinical genomics market. However, short-read sequencing data continues to remain challenged by mapping inaccuracies in low complexity regions or regions of high homology and may not provide adequate coverage within GC-rich regions of the genome. Thus, the use of Sanger sequencing remains popular in many clinical sequencing labs as the gold standard approach for orthogonal validation of variants and to interrogate missed regions poorly covered by second-generation sequencing. The use of Sanger sequencing can be less than ideal, as it can be costly for high volume assays and projects. Additionally, Sanger sequencing…

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October 9, 2018

SMRT Analysis Brochure: Gain a deeper understanding of your sequencing data

The PacBio Platform includes an extensive software portfolio that employs key advantages of SMRT (Single Molecule, Real-Time) Sequencing technology: extraordinarily long reads, highest consensus accuracy, uniform coverage and simultaneous epigenetic characterization. Core elements of our analytical portfolio include SMRT Analysis software, DevNet and SMRT Compatible products.

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October 4, 2018

Application Brief: Targeted sequencing for amplicons – Best Practices

With Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing and the Sequel System, you can easily and cost effectively generate high-fidelity, long reads (>99% single-molecule read accuracy) from genes or regions of interest ranging in size from several hundred base pairs to 20 kb. Target all types of variation across relevant genomic regions, including low complexity regions like repeat expansions, promoters, and flanking regions of transposable elements.

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August 16, 2018

High-throughput amplicon sequencing of the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution

Targeted PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing (amplicon sequencing) of 16S rRNA gene fragments is widely used to profile microbial communities. New sequencing technologies produce long reads that can span the entire 16S rRNA gene, but have substantially higher error rates that have limited their attractiveness when accuracy is important. Here we present a high-throughput amplicon sequencing methodology based on PacBio circular consensus sequencing and the DADA2 sample inference method that measures the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution and a near-zero error rate. In two artificial mixtures of known bacterial strains our method recovered the full complement of full-length…

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June 18, 2018

High-throughput SMRT Sequencing of clinically relevant targets

Targeted sequencing with Sanger as well as short read based high throughput sequencing methods is standard practice in clinical genetic testing. However, many applications beyond SNP detection have remained somewhat obstructed due to technological challenges. With the advent of long reads and high consensus accuracy, SMRT Sequencing overcomes many of the technical hurdles faced by Sanger and NGS approaches, opening a broad range of untapped clinical sequencing opportunities. Flexible multiplexing options, highly adaptable sample preparation method and newly improved two well-developed analysis methods that generate highly-accurate sequencing results, make SMRT Sequencing an adept method for clinical grade targeted sequencing. The…

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June 1, 2018

Accurate detection of complex structural variations using single-molecule sequencing.

Structural variations are the greatest source of genetic variation, but they remain poorly understood because of technological limitations. Single-molecule long-read sequencing has the potential to dramatically advance the field, although high error rates are a challenge with existing methods. Addressing this need, we introduce open-source methods for long-read alignment (NGMLR; https://github.com/philres/ngmlr ) and structural variant identification (Sniffles; https://github.com/fritzsedlazeck/Sniffles ) that provide unprecedented sensitivity and precision for variant detection, even in repeat-rich regions and for complex nested events that can have substantial effects on human health. In several long-read datasets, including healthy and cancerous human genomes, we discovered thousands of novel…

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June 1, 2018

High-resolution comparative analysis of great ape genomes.

Genetic studies of human evolution require high-quality contiguous ape genome assemblies that are not guided by the human reference. We coupled long-read sequence assembly and full-length complementary DNA sequencing with a multiplatform scaffolding approach to produce ab initio chimpanzee and orangutan genome assemblies. By comparing these with two long-read de novo human genome assemblies and a gorilla genome assembly, we characterized lineage-specific and shared great ape genetic variation ranging from single- to mega-base pair-sized variants. We identified ~17,000 fixed human-specific structural variants identifying genic and putative regulatory changes that have emerged in humans since divergence from nonhuman apes. Interestingly, these…

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May 29, 2018

Webinar: Assembling high-quality human reference genomes for global populations

This webinar highlights global initiatives currently underway to use Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing to de novo assemble genomes of individuals representing multiple ethnic populations, thereby extending the diversity of available human reference genomes. In their presentations, Tina Graves-Lindsay from Washington University and Adam Ameur from Uppsala University spoke about diploid assemblies, discovering novel sequence and improving diversity of the current human reference genome. Finally, Paul Peluso of PacBio presented data from the recent effort to sequence a Puerto Rican genome and shared a SMRT Sequencing technology roadmap showing the next several upgrades for the Sequel System.

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May 1, 2018

Detecting AGG interruptions in females with a FMR1 premutation by long-read Single-Molecule Sequencing: A 1 year clinical experience.

The fragile X syndrome arises from the FMR1 CGG expansion of a premutation (55-200 repeats) to a full mutation allele (>200 repeats) and is the most frequent cause of inherited X-linked intellectual disability. The risk for a premutation to expand to a full mutation allele depends on the repeat length and AGG triplets interrupting this repeat. In genetic counseling it is important to have information on both these parameters to provide an accurate risk estimate to women carrying a premutation allele and weighing up having children. For example, in case of a small risk a woman might opt for a…

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