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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Assessment of insertion sequence mobilization as an adaptive response to oxidative stress in Acinetobacter baumannii using IS-Seq.

Insertion sequence (IS) elements are found throughout bacterial genomes and contribute to genome variation by interrupting genes or altering gene expression. Few of the more than thirty IS elements described in Acinetobacter baumannii have been characterized for transposition activity or expression effects. A targeted sequencing method, IS-seq, was developed to efficiently map the locations of new insertion events in A. baumannii genomes and was used to identify novel IS sites following growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress. Serial subculture in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of hydrogen peroxide led to rapid selection of cells carrying…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic sequencing of a strain of Acinetobacter baumannii and potential mechanisms to antibiotics resistance.

Acinetobacter baumannii has been becoming a great challenge to clinicians due to their resistance to almost all available antibiotics. In this study, we sequenced the genome from a multiple antibiotics resistant Acinetobacter baumannii stain which was named A. baumannii-1isolated from China by SMRT sequencing technology to explore its potential mechanisms to antibiotic resistance. We found that several mechanisms might contribute to the antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Specifically, we found that SNP in genes associated with nucleotide excision repair and ABC transporter might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics; we also found that specific genes associated with bacterial DNA…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Multi-omics approach to study global changes in a triclosan-resistant mutant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978.

Acinetobacter baumannii AB042, a triclosan-resistant mutant strain, was examined for modulated gene expression using whole-genome sequencing, transcriptomics and proteomics in order to understand the mechanism of triclosan resistance as well as its impact on A. baumannii. Data revealed modulated expression of the fatty acid metabolism pathway, co-factors known to play a role in the synthesis of fatty acids, as well as several transcriptional regulators. The membrane composition of the mutant revealed a decrease in C18 with a corresponding increase in C16 fatty acids compared with the parent strain A. baumannii ATCC 17978. These data indicate that A. baumannii responds to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Transcriptome Remodeling of Acinetobacter baumannii during Infection and Treatment.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly common multidrug-resistant pathogen in health care settings. Although the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance mechanisms has been extensively studied, much less is known about how genetic variation contributes to other aspects of successful infections. Genetic changes that occur during host infection and treatment have the potential to remodel gene expression patterns related to resistance and pathogenesis. Longitudinal sets of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates from eight patients were analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify differentially expressed genes and link them to genetic changes contributing to transcriptional variation at both within-patient and population levels. The number of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic epidemiology of NDM-1-encoding plasmids in Latin American clinical isolates reveals insights into the evolution of multidrug resistance

Bacteria that produce the broad-spectrum Carbapenem antibiotic New Delhi Metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) place a burden on health care systems worldwide, due to the limited treatment options for infections caused by them and the rapid global spread of this antibiotic resistance mechanism. Although it is believed that the associated resistance gene blaNDM-1 originated in Acinetobacter spp., the role of Enterobacteriaceae in its dissemination remains unclear. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing to investigate the dissemination dynamics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmids in a set of 21 clinical NDM-1-positive isolates from Colombia and Mexico (Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii) as well…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A nosocomial outbreak of extensively drug resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii isolates containing blaOXA-237 encoded on a plasmid.

Carbapenem antibiotics are among the mainstay for treating infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, especially in the Northwest United States where carbapenem resistant A. baumannii remain relatively rare. However, between June 2012 and October 2014, an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii occurred in 16 patients from 5 healthcare facilities in the state of Oregon. All isolates were defined as extensively-drug resistant (XDR). MLST revealed that the isolates belonged to sequence type 2 (international clone 2, IC2), and were greater than 95% similar by rep-PCR analysis. Multiplex PCR revealed the presence of a blaOXA carbapenemase gene, later identified as blaOXA-237 Whole genome…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii A1296 (ST1469) with a small plasmid harbouring the tet(39) tetracycline resistance gene.

Acinetobacter baumannii is considered an important nosocomial pathogen worldwide owing to its increasing antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to determine the complete genome sequence of A. baumannii strain A1296 and to perform a comparative analysis among A. baumannii.The complete genome sequence of A. baumannii A1296 was sequenced on two SMRT cells using P6C4 chemistry on a PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) RS II instrument. The A1296 genome sequence was annotated using Prokaryotic Genome Automatic Annotation Pipeline (PGAAP), and the sequence type and resistance genes of the strain were analysed.Here we present the complete genome sequence of A. baumannii strain A1296,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Rapid gene turnover as a significant source of genetic variation in a recently seeded population of a pathogen.

Genome sequencing has been useful to gain an understanding of bacterial evolution. It has been used for studying the phylogeography and/or the impact of mutation and recombination on bacterial populations. However, it has rarely been used to study gene turnover at microevolutionary scales. Here, we sequenced Mexican strains of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii sampled from the same locale over a 3 year period to obtain insights into the microevolutionary dynamics of gene content variability. We found that the Mexican A. baumannii population was recently founded and has been emerging due to a rapid clonal expansion. Furthermore, we noticed that…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Multiplication of blaOXA-23 is common in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii, but does not enhance carbapenem resistance.

To investigate the copy number of blaOXA-23 and its correlation with carbapenem resistance in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB).A total of 113 blaOXA-23-positive clinical CRAB isolates were collected from two hospitals in Zhejiang province, China. Their genetic relatedness was determined by MLST. The MIC of imipenem was determined using the agar diffusion method and the copy number of blaOXA-23 was measured using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The complete genomes of five clinical CRAB strains were sequenced using PacBio technology to investigate the multiplication mechanism of blaOXA-23.Most of the isolates (100/113) belonged to global clone II and the MIC of imipenem ranged…

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